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Higher Unit 1

What molecule controls each step in a metabolic pathway An enzyme
What type of reaction releases energy catabolic
when amino acids are converted into proteins/polypeptides this is catabolic/anabolic anabolic
reactions involving biosynthesis are anabolic or catabolic anabolic
when a substrate binds causing the active site to change shape this is termed induced fit
an inhibitor that causes irreversible/permanent changes is called a competitive or non competitive inhibitor? non competitive
an inhibitor that binds at the active site is called competitive
an inhibitor that binds away from the active site is called non competitive
how can the effects of a competitive inhibitor be reversed increasing the substrate concentration
when the last product in a pathway builds up and inhibits further production this is termed end product inhibition OR feedback inhibition
when starch is produced from glucose this is termed catabolic/anabolic anabolic
glycolysis is an example of a catabolic Or anabolic reaction catabolic
the three types of proteins in the membrane are called pumps, pores and enzymes
what is the function of pumps active transport
Give an example of an enzyme in the inner mitochondrial membrane (cristae) ATp synthase
what is meant by the energy investment stage in glycolysis (2) ATP is required to PHOSPHORYLATE intermediates
what is meant by the energy payoff stage in glycolysis more (4)ATP is made than required (2 ATP) -OR net gain 2 ATP
what happens during glycolysis glucose converted into pyruvate
what is the fate of pyruvate in anaerobic conditions in muscle cells lactic acid/lactate
what is the fate of pyruvate in anaerobic conditions in yeast OR plant cells alcohol/ethanol AND carbon dioxide
where does glycolysis occur in a cell cytoplasm
where does the kreb cycle occur matrix of mitochondria
where does the electron transport chain occur cristae of mitochondria
what is the 6C molecule called in the kreb cycle citrate/citric acid
what is the 4c molecule called in the kreb cycke oxaloacetate
what does pyruvate turn into in aerobic conditions acetyl
what is the function of dehydrogenase REMOVES H ions & electrons & passes to NAD to make NADH
what is the function of co enzymes CARRY H ions and electrons to the electron transport chain
Name a co enzyme NAD or FAD
what co enzyme is only found in the kreb cycle FAD
what molecule only provides energy for glycolysis and not the kreb cycle - protein/fat/carbohydrate carbohydrate
name an alternative respiratory substrate that provides energy for the kreb cycle fat or protein
What is the advantage of compartmentalised membranes having large surface area/volume ratios higher concenrtrations OR higher reaction rates
What molecule is inhibited during end product/feedback inhibitio FIRST enzyme
Does the substrate or product have high affinity for the active site of the enzyme substrate
what do enzymes do to activation energy lower activation energy
what is activation energy energy required to break bonds between reactants
Does a high substrate concentration promote the forward or backward reaction forward
what is responsible for the correct orientation of the substrate into the enzyme the active site
what happens to acetyl before it joins with oxaloacetate it becomes acetyl CO A
what is the role of electrons in the electron transport chain releases energy for H to be pumped across membrane
how is ATP made in the electron transport chain H flows across ATP synthase causing it to make ATP from ADP & Pi
what is the role of oxygen in the electron transport chain Final H and electron acceptor (making water)
Name three products in the kreb cycle ATP, carbon dioxide and NADH/FADH
where is most ATP made during cellular respiration electron transport chain
How much ATP is produced during glycolysis 2 ATP
what enzyme makes ATP (ATP) synthase
In what two stages are NAD molecules converted into NADH glycolysis and kreb cycle
what is regenerated during the Kreb Cycle oxaloacetate (from citrate)
what is the electron transport chain A collection of proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane
Name two ways of measuring metabolic rate oxygen used/time OR carbon dioxide given out/time OR heat produced/time
What type of organism has the highest metabolic rate? birds
what is meant by an incomplete circulatory system one ventricle
why are incomplete systems less efficient (2 marks) mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood (1 mark) less oxygen delivered to cells (for respiration) (1 mark)
what type of organism has a single circulatory system fish
what type of circulatory system has an amphibian or reptile have double incomplete
How many heart chambers are there in a double complete system 4 chambers - 2 atria and 2 ventricle
what type of organism has a higher metabolic rate - double incomplete or double complete double complete
Name an organism that has a double complete system bird or mammal
Name two adaptations of bird's lungs 1. parabronchi 2. 1 directional gas exchange
what are parabronchi tiny tubes that provide more efficient gas exchange than alveoli as there are no dead ends
what type of organism's internal environment varies upon the external environment conformer
name two abiotic factors that a regulator can control salinity, temperature, pH
when an organism's internal temperature is controlled by behavioural means is this a regulator or conformer conformer
name a behavioural adaptation of an conformer move into/out of sun
State a disadvantage of being a conformer not adaptable to change/can only live in a narrow range of places
state a disadvantage of being a regulator high metabolic costs
what is the temperature monitoring centre in mammals called hypothalamus NOT brain
How is information communicated from the hypothalamus to the effector (Skin) nerves
when do organisms vasodilate when they are too hot
when do organisms contract their hair erector muscles too cold
why sweat to EVAPORATE water to cool down the body
why vasodilate to increase BLOOD FLOW to increase HEAT LOSS BY RADIATION
why do hair erector muscles contract to trap air by INSULATION
why shiver to generate HEAT by muscle contraction
why increase metabolic rate to generate heat
which type of organism has a very simple lung system with just a trachea and two air sacs amphibians
Name a low oxygen habitat high up on a mountain OR under sea
Name a physiological adaptation to low oxygen produce more red blood cells (altitude) Partially deflate lungs/slow HR to reduce oxygen demand
A higher VO2 max indicates an individual is more/less fit More fit
How do you work out VO2 max 40ml over 10mins and person weighs 40kg? 40ml divide by 10 minutes = 4ml/min now divide by 40 = 0.4 ml/min/kg
If person A consumes 50ml of oxygen and weighs 100kg how do you work out their VO2? 50/100 = 0.5ml/kg
What has 20% oxygen concentration in the atmoshere resulted in organisms with MAXIMUM terrestrial body size
how could body size of terrestrial organisms be increased increase atmospheric oxygen as this would sutain higher metabolic rate of bigger animals
what is negative feedback change away from optimum result in corrective mechanisms that return conditions back to normal then TURN OFF
why is it important for mammals to thermoregulate (control body temperature) to ensure high diffusion rates OR keep enzymes at optimum
Who has lower metabolic costs - conformer or regulators conformers
what is the only way to avoid adverse conditions migrate
name an advantage and disadvantage of avoiding adverse conditions adv - avoid metabolic adversity by relocating disadv - costs energy to migrate
Name one technique for tracking migration GPS/ tag & recapture/electronic tags
How do organism survive adverse conditions undergo dormancy
What is dormancy reducing metabolic rate (to survive adverse conditions)
what is the difference between predictive and consequential dormancy predictive - dormancy BEFORE onset of adverse conditions consequential - AFTER onset of adverse conditions
What is hibernation dormancy when temperatures are very low
What is aestivation dormancy when temperatures are VERY high OR during droughts
Organisms that undergo torpor have high/low metabolic rates high metabolic rates
Give an example of an organism that occurs torpor bird/humming bird
Many environments vary beyond X and thus animals undergo dormancy. What is X tolerable limits
What causes changes in environment beyond tolerable limits cyclical OR unpredicatable changes
What is the importance of changes beyond tolerable limits they do not allow for normal (high) metabolic rate so animals survive by underdoing dormancy or avoid by migration
what are the four stages of microbe growth lag, log ,stationary, death
when the birth rate equals the death rate during microbe growth this is called stationary
what happens during the lag phase enzymes induced
what happens during exponential/log phase population doubles with each round of cell division
what causes stationary phase nutrients/oxygen running out OR toxic metabolites being produced
what causes death phase nutrients/oxygen ran out OR toxic metabolites build up
How do you work out mean generation (doubling time) from a graph read off a point on Y axis of graph e.g. 400 and note time. Double population to 800 and go to line and read off how long it took to get to 800. Subtract difference
what happens during secondary metabolism bacteria confers ecological advantage by producing antibiotics
when is secondary metabolism in microbes during stationary phase
when is primary metabolism in microbes lag and exponential
what 4 conditions need to be controlled in a fermenter sterility, temperature, oxygen concentration and pH
How do we control pH in fermenter buffers
why do we control temperature in fermenter to ensures enzymes are at their optimum
why do we use paddles in fermenter for aeration/to mix solutions for even supply of nutrients
why do we use a water jacket/thermostat in fermenter to control temperature
what term is given to migration that is natural and inherited innate migration
what term is given to bacteria whose enzymes are not denatured by hot springs extremophile
what substances are required to make microbes grow in a culture medium energy source & simple and complex raw materials
Name a complex raw material required for microbe growth vitamins OR fatty acids OR beef extracts
Name a simple raw material required for microbe growth amino acids
Name an energy source required for microbe growth light OR carbohydrate
Name two ways WILD microbes can be improved by lab techniques mutagenesis, selective breeding or recombinant DNA technology
How do you selectively breed bacteria exchange of plasmids by asexual reproduction
How do you selectively breed yeast yeast can reproduce sexually creating new varieties of yeast
what is recombinant DNA technology insert animal GENE into microbe to make animal PROTEIN
Name 4 genes found on vectors ORI sequence, regulatory sequence, restriction sites AND marker (antibiotic resistance) genes
what is the function of an ORI sequence for self replication of plasmid
what is the function of regulatory sequences to control gene expression (which genes are OFF and which are ON)
what is the function of restriction sites where endonuclease/restriction enzymes cut to leave specific sticky ends
what is the function of antibiotic resistance genes in presence of antibiotics ONLY bacteria with antibiotic resistance plasmids SURVIVE.
what is the role of ligase seals gene into plasmid
what is the role of endonuclease cuts plasmid or gene leaving complementary sticky ends
Why use yeast rather than bacteria as a vector in recombinant DNA technology proteins do not fold correctly in bacteria OR lack post translational modifications
why use bacteria at all in recombinant DNA technology if yeast is better at folding proteins bacteria multipies very quickly
Why are safety genes introduced in microbes to prevent growth outside lab
Name an ethical consideration of working with WILD microbes they may escape and transfer genes into other microbes causing disease
Name a compound which can be added to a metabolic pathway to ensure an intermediate product is produced inhibitor, pre cursor or inducer
Created by: kyle_academy



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