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Life Science Unit 2

Chapter 1-2

What is a virus? a tiny particle that contains nucleic acid encased in protein
What is nucleic acid? organic compounds that contain genetic information for an organism to make the protein it needs
What is an electron microscope? uses a beam of electrons to detect objects....... can detect very small objects
List 3 reasons why viruses could be living things. 1. they can reproduce 2. they can grow and mutate in a host 3. they have DNA 4. their shell is like a cell membrane 5. they "live" in a host
List the first four steps of virus reproduction. 1. Virus penetrates host cell 2. Nucleic acid from virus goes into cell 3. Nucleic acid uses cell parts to copy itself 4. Protein coats are formed around nucleic acid (uses up cell parts, sometimes killing the cel
List the last step in virus reproduction 5. new virused burst out of the host cell to search for new hosts!
List a viruse that infects bacteria. bacteriophage
List a virus that infects plants. TMV : tobacco mosaic virus
List some viruses that infect animals. papillomavirus, influenza, rabies, cold, catflu
List some viruses that infect humans. papillomavirus, HIV, yellow fever, black plague, fever, pneumonia, hepatitis, chicken pox, cold, measles, mumps, influenza
What are vaccines? weakeed viruses given to "teach" your immune system how to fight that virus
What shapes can bacteria come in? rod, round, spiral, and comma shaped
What are autotrophs? bacteria that can make their own food
What are heterotrophs? bacteria that live off of others
What are decomposers? bacteria that eat dead material
How do bacteria reproduce? asexual reproduction and binary fission
What are endospores? "force feilds" for bacteria
What do aerobic bacteria need? oxygen
Do anaerobic bacteria need oxygen? no
What is Symbiosis? a relationship in which one organism lives on, near, or inside another organism and at least one of them benefits
What foods do bacteria help to produce? cheese, pickles, sour cream, soy sauce, and plants like vegetables and fruits
What is pathogen? tiny living things that cause diseases
What does canning do? it heats up food to kill the bacteria and puts them in sealed airtight containers
What do preservatives do? they slow the growthe of bacteia and mold (they are chemicals)
What does freeze-drying do? it removes all moisture from a food and then puts them in a sealed airtight package
What does pasteurization do? it heats liquids to kill harmful bacteria
Created by: 1becky1