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Chapter 3

Carbon Compounds and Molecules of Life

TermDefinition
Organic Compounds Compounds made primarily of carbon atoms.
Functional Groups Clusters of atoms that influence the characteristics of the molecules they compose and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo.
Monomers What many carbon compounds are made up of.
Polymer A molecule that consists of repeated, linked units.
Macromolecules Large polymers.
Condensation Reaction When monomers link together to form polymers through a chemical reaction.
Hydrolysis A reaction where water is used to break down a polymer.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) A compound used to store large amounts of energy in their structure.
Carbohydrates Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.
Monosaccharide A monomer of carbohydrate's. A simple sugar.
Disaccharide Two monosaccharides or double the sugar.
Polysaccharide A complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.
Proteins Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
Amino Acids The long chains that make up proteins.
Peptide Bond A condensation reaction with two amino acids to form a covalent bond.
Enzymes RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts. Essential to the function of any cell.
Substrate The reactant that is being catalyzed.
Active Site The place where the enzyme and the substrate meet.
Lipids Large, nonpolar organic molecules.
Fatty Acids Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids.
Phospholoids Have two rather than three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol.
Wax A type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain.
Steroids The molecules in this substance are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them.
Nucleic Acids Very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information into the cell.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Contains information and determines characteristics of of an organism and directs cell activities.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins.
Nucleotide The thousands of linked monomers that make up DNA and RNA molecules
Created by: 56291