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Terms and Definitions

Alliteration the repetition of intitial consonant sounds in words in a sentence( sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger and better)
Antagonist principal character in oppostion to the protagonist. Sometimes not a person but an obstacle such as a force of nature, society, or inner conflict
Antonym a word that is the opposite of another word
Author's purpose why did the author write the selection? Is the purpose to entertain, to inform, or to persuade? Skim the selection and attempt to determine the author's purpose before you read the selection
Autobiography the story of a person's life written by the person
Biography the story of a person's life written by another person
Cause and Effect cause statements stem for actions and events, and effects are what happen as a result of the event or action
Characterization the method an author uses to communicate information about the characters to the reader. the methods include the character's appearance, the character's actions, the character's thoughts, the character's conversations, and the reactions of others toward t
Climax the moment when the action of the story comes to the highest point. this usually occurs at the end of the story just before the resolution. it is the part of the story where you are pretty sure you know what is going to happen next
compare and contrast compare means to show similiarities and contrast means to show differences
conclusion the end of the reading selection
conflict struggle between opposing forces in literature
Character vs Character a conflict between characters such as family conflict, trouble with a bully or difficulties in romance. This type of conflict is external
Character vs Nature a conflict between a character and a force in nature such as a tornado,avalanche, extreme weather conditions or any type of natural disaster. this type of conflict is external
Character vs self this is an internal conflict because the struggle takes place in a character's mind. ex. a character may have to decide between right or wrong or between two solutions to a problem. Sometimes a character must deal with his/her mixed feelings or emotions a
connections text to self, world, or text.. the reader can connect what he has read with something else
context clues information within the reading selection that helps the reader figure out the meanings of challenging words
dialogue the actual words that the character speaks
evaluate to examine and judge
exposition the background info. that the author provides about the setting, plot, character or other essential story elements
Expository Text text written to explain and convey info. about a specific topic
fable a narrative intended to convey a moral or lesson to the reader
fact vs opinion is it something that can be proven to be true, or is it just someone else's point of view
falling action the part of the story following the climax where there is a sharp decline in dramatic tension, this occurs just before the resolution
fiction any story that is the product of imagination rather than fact
Figurative language language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect.(personification, metaphor, simile,hyperbole)
flashback technique in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an incident of a earlier time;flashback is often used to provide additionalinfo. to the reader
folktales stories passed through generations
foreshadowing a writing technique that gives readers clues about events that will happen later in the story
generalizations when you make assumptions about different events and/or characters and apply them to new situations
genre categories of literature-mystery, horror, suspense
graphic organizer a diagram that is used to represent info. venn diagrams
homonym two or more words that are pronounced alike but have different meanings. aunt/ant
hyperbole an exaggerated statement used to make a strong effect
imagery words or phrases used specifically to help the reader to imagine each of thesenses. touch, smell, sight, hearing, taste
inference readin between the lines. taking what the author wrote and adding it to what you already know to make an assumption
irony a tone that is created when the speaker intends to mean that which is opposite to the words they are saying
judge to say something is good or bad- if you like it or don't like it
Limerick light or humorous verse
metaphor a comparison between two unlike things without using the words like or as
mood the overall feeling created by the author's words
narrator the speaker of the story
nonfiction writing that is true and the purpose is to inform. Nonfiction communicates knowledge about real people, events, and/or situations
Onomatopoeia words whose sounds express their meaning (ex. buzz, crash,whirr, hiss, purr etc.)
oxymoron putting two contradictory words together (opposites) (ex.jumbo shrimp, plastic glasses)
Paraphrase restate in your own words. A paraphrase is a retelling of the reading selection that includes more than just the main ideas
personification giving lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects (ex. planets danced in their orbits)
plot the events that occur in the story beginning with the setting and ending with the resolution
poetry writing that expresses ideas through rhythmic patterns and figurative language
point of view perspective from which the story is being told. The main points of view are first person (uses I) third person limited and third person omniscients (uses he, she, it, they)
Third person limited point of view the story is told from the view-point of a character; as a result the reader is only exposed to what that character experiances
third person omniscient point of view "all knowing" instead of being a character in the story, the narrator is outside the story so the thoughts of all of the characters present
prediction making an educacted guess as to what will happen next
prefix letters added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning
protagonist the central character in a story that is the "good guy"
reaction/react offer your own opinion of the reading material
resolution occurs at the end of a story and includes the story's action after the climax
rising action the part of the story, including the exposition, which builds to the climax
root word a word to which prefixes and suffixes are added
sequential order order in which the events in the story are presented to the reader
setting the environment of time and place where the action of a story occurs
simile a comparison between two unlike things by using the words like or as (ex.Her hair was as white as the snow.)
suffix letters placed at the end of a word to change its meaning
summarizing a concise (short yet detailed) explanation of a reading selection. A summary contains only the main ideas.
supporting details details that support the main idea of the passage
suspense techniques used by the author to keep readers interested in the story and wondering what will happen next
symbol an image,, object, character, or action that stands for an idea beyond its literal meaning (ex.smiley face= happy or smile)
synonym two or more words that have highly similiar meanings (ex.slim/skinny/lean/thin)
theme the underlying message of the selection that the author is trying to convey or communicate to the reader. Theme may be thought of as the lesson or moral of the story
tone the clues of the story that suggests the writer's own attitude toward elements in the story
visualization the ability to "see" what you are reading
voice voice is the author's style, the qualilty that makes his or her writing unique
Created by: 2014KruEmiP