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Animal Science

Hunter-gatherers first domesticated animals and used the meat, bones, and skins just as they had done before domestication; other uses (milk, clothing, power, war, sport, and prestige) came later.
Animal science is simply the collective study of domestic animals.
Animal science is divided into specific disciplines, or specialties as follows: (8 of Them) – Animal Genetics – Animal Nutrition – Animal Physiology – Animal health – Ethology – Meat science – Dairy product science – Biotechnology
approximately___billion large farm animals and ___billion poultry throughout the world. 4.5 and 19.8
Poultry numbers have increased more rapidly at an average rate of over__annually. 5%
• meat supplies approximately____ • milk provides approximately____, • fish supplies approximately____, • and eggs supply___. 49.5%, 25.8%, 16% 8.7%
Meat, eggs, and dairy products are important food sources because they are Nutrient Dense
Annual per capita meat supply ranges from over____. in affluent countries to very little in poor countries. 300 lbs
The___is the most important meat source, producing__of the world’s meat pig 38%
World meat production has increased steadily for many years at an average rate of___per year 2%
Cattle supply___of the world’s milk supply. – Buffalos supply ___of world’s milk. 83% 13%
In addition to meat, poultry species produce a_____high quality product—____. Second Eggs
sheep (____and Persian lambskins), • goats (_____and mohair), wool Cashmere
xenotransplantation (what happens to a pig liver and human liver) the replacing of human organs with those from animals, is an active and promising area of research
• The stresses of the natural and/or artificial environment that affect animals may be classified as: (5 of them) -climatic stresses, – nutritional stresses, – internal stresses, – geographical stresses, – and social stresse
_______or______changes are changes in form and structure. Morphological Anatomical
Two terms,__________and________, refer to a country’s level of economic development Developed Countries Developing Countries
___________are usually small, labor-intensive farm units. __________are usually large range units. Intensive Systems Extensive Systems
________is the study of how the body uses the nutrients in feed to sustain life and for productive purposes. Nutrition
________are substances required for life processes, reproduction, growth and lactation Nutrients
The nutrient classifications are: . – water, – carbohydrates, – vitamins, – minerals, – proteins, – and fats (lipids)
The amount of nutrients depends on: – type of species, its digestive tract, and any peculiarities of its metabolism; – and the level of production and the product(s) being produced (work, fetus, growth, milk, eggs, and fiber).
Monogastrics, or nonruminants are one stomached, or simple-stomach animals. Include chicken, turkey, swine and horse
ruminants —cattle, sheep, goats have four compartment stomach. Pseudoruminants (llamas) have three
Prehension, the means an animal uses to bring food into its mouth, is the first step of digestion.
• Mastication • , or chewing, involves the action of the jaw and teeth to crush the food.
Salivation includes secretion and mixing of saliva with food
The small intestine is divided into three portions: duodenum jejunum ileum
The large intestine has three parts: (CCR) the cecum, the colon, and the rectum.
Defecation is the discharge of excrement from the body via the rectum or cloaca.
Micturition is urination
The complex stomach is comprised of four compartments: – rumen, – reticulum, – omasum, – and the abomasum.
genotype, sets the stage for traits such coat type, coat color, speed, body composition, growth, reproduction, milk production, disease resistance, and other
Chromosome Number of Different Species Buffalo__ • Cat__ • Cattle__ • Dog__ • Donkey__ • Goat__ • Horse__ • Pig__ • Sheep__ 60 38 60 78 62 60 64 38 54
• The segment of the deoxyribose, phosphate, and one of the bases is called a______. nucleotide
The entire genetic material of an animal is termed its_____. genome
Each parent produces reproductive cells called _____. gametes
Another feature of the chromosome is the ______, which can be located anywhere along the chromosome. centromere
_______is the process of somatic cell division Mitosis
The cell division that occurs in gametogenesis is called_____. meiosis
Renewable You don't kill the animals you cut the hair/ take the fat etc. and it will grow back
China produces the most pork in the world
Fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) Not washed through urine
Water Soluble Vitamins ( B and C) Washed out through urine
Cellulose major carbohydrate found in forages such as fresh pastures, silage, and hay
Sheeps 8000 bc
Goats Cattles Pigs 6500 bc
Chicken 6000 bc
llama 5500 bc
donkeys 4000 bc
horses 3500 bc
reindeer 3000 bc
The most important us for animals for humans is food. Name the 5 other uses. 1. Religion 2. Companionship 3. Sports 4. Recreation 5. Manufacturing
DNA sequencing suggest that the dog may have been domesticated 135,000 years ago, but archeological evidence suggest that the dog was domesticated ____________ years ago. 14,000 years ago (12,000) BC
How much of the worlds meat, milk, and wool come from large farm animals is developing countries? What are some reasons? 1/3 Lack of technology, different objectives of production, disease challenges, and environmental stresses.
List 6 food contributions of animals to humans 1. Meat 2. Blood 3. Fat 4. Edible slaughter by-products 5. Milk 6. Eggs
List 7 body covering contributions of animals to humans 1. Pelts 2. Feathers 3. Fur 4. Hair 5. Hides 6. Leather 7. Wool
List 2 work contributions of animals to humans 1. Draft and other labor 2. Transportation
List 4 body waste contributions of animals to humans 1. Fuel 2. Fertilizers 3. Construction material 4. Animal feed
List 6 other uses for animals 1. Income 2. Recreation 3. Storage of capital 4. Prestige 5. Religion/ cultural needs 6. Companionship
Plants supply ___% of the total food energy consumed by the world. 82.8%
Animal product supply __% of the total food energy consumed by the world. 17.2%
Animals supply __% of the world's protein. 38.5%
__% of the calories in the average diet in North America is from animal products compared to __% for the average African? 27% 7.4%
Draft animals are important in what three countries? Asian, African, and Latin American
What amount of feed in the U.S is inedible for humans? 2/3
List 6 feeds in U.S. livestock that is not suitable for human consumption. 1. Hay 2. Coarse forages 3. Damaged foods 4. By products 5. Garbage 6. Pasture
The world's population is expected to reach 9 billion by what year? 2050
Created by: K_goddessss