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Reading

Terms and Definitoions

TermsDefinitions
Alliteration the repetition of initial consonant sounds in words in a sentance. Examples: sweet smell of sucess, a dime a dozen, bigger and better, jump for joy.
Antagonist principle character in opposition to the protagonist. sometimes not a person but an obstacle such as a force of nature, society, or inner conflict.
Antonym a word that is the opposite of another word.
Author's Purpose why did the author write the selection? is the purpose to entertain, to inform, or to persuade? skim the selection and attempt to determine the author's purpose before you read the selection.
Autobiography the story of a persons life written by the person.
Biography the story of a person's life written by another person.
Cause And Effect cause statements stem for actions and events, and effects are what happenas a result of the event or action.
Characterization the method an author uses to communicate information about the characters to the reader. the methods include: (1) the character's appearance, (2) the character's actions, (3) the character's thoughts, (4) the character's conversations,and (5) the reaction
Climax the moment when the action of the story just before the resolution. it is the part of the story where you are pretty sure you know what is going to happento the main character.
Compare And Contrast compare means to show similarities and contrast means to show differences.
Conclusion the end of the reading selection.
Conflict struggle between opposing forces
Character vs. Character a conflict betweencharacters such as family conflict, trouble with a bully or difficulties in romance. this type of conflict is external.
Character vs. Nature a conflict between a character and a force in nature such as a tornado, avalanche, extreme weather conditions or any type of natural disaster. This type of conflict is external.
character vs. Self this is a internal conflict because the stuggle takes place in a character's mind. for example, a character may have to decide between right and wrong or between two solutions to a problem. Sometimes, a character must deal with his/her mixed feelings or
connections text to self; world; or text. the reader can connect what he has read with something else.
Context clues information within the reading selection that helps the reader figure out the meanings of challenging words.
dialouge the actual words that the character speaks.
evaluate to examine and judge.
exposition the background information that the author provides about the setting, plot, character, or other essential story elements.
Expository Text text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic.
fable a narrative intended to convey a moral or lesson to the reader
Fact vs. opinion is it something that can be proven to be true, or just someone else's point of view?
Falling action the part of the story following the climaxwhere there is a sharp decline in dramatic tension; thuis occurs just before the resolution.
fiction any story that is the product of imagination rather than fact
figureative language language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a specialeffect
flashback technique in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an incedint of earlier time; flashback is often used to provide additional informatioto the reader.
folktales stories passed through genrations
foreshadowing a writing tecghnique that gives readers clues about the events that will happen later in the story.
generalizations when you make assumptions about different events and/or characters and apply them to new situations
genre categories of literatureex. mystery, horror, suspense, realistic, sports,historical, adventure, ect.
Graphic Organizer a diagram that is used to represent information - Venn Diagram, T - Chart, Sequence chart, cause and effect chart, ect.
homonym two or more words that are pronounced alike but have different meanings. ex: aunt/ant or eight/ate
hyperbole an exaggerated statement used to make a strong effect. ex:"I'm dying of thirst!"
Imagery words and phrases used specifically to help the reader to imagine each of the senses: smell, touch, sight, hearing, and taste.
Inference reading between the lines. taking what the author wrote and adding it to what you already know to make an assumption.
irony a tone that is created when the speaker intends to mean that which is opposite to the words thy are saying.
judge to say if something is good or bad - if you like it or you don't
limerick light or humerous verse
metaphor a comparison between two unlike things without using the words like or asex: Joe is a lion on the playing field
mood the overall feeling created by the author's words.
Narrator the speaker of the story.
nonfiction writing that is true and the purpose is to inform. Nonfiction communicates knowledge about real people, events, and/or situations.
onomatopoeia words whose sounds express thier meaning. Examples: buzz, crash, whirr, clang, hiss, purr, squeak, mumble, hush, boom.
oxymoron putting two contadictory words together. Ex: jumbo shrimp, plastic glasses, terribly pleased, pretty ugly.
paraphrase restate in your own words. a paraphrase is a retelling of the reading selection that includes more than just the main ideas.
personification giving lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects. Ex: planets danced in their orbits.
plot the events that occur in the story beggining with the setting and ending in the resolution
poetry writing that expresses ideas through rhythmic patterns and figurative language.
point of view perspective from which the story is being told. the main points of view are first person (uses the pronoun 1), third person omniscient(uses the pronouns he, she, it, they).
Third person limiteed point of view the story is told from the view-point of a character; as a result the reader is only exposed to what that character experiences.
third person omniscient point of view "all knowing" instead of being a cahracter in the story so the thoughts of all characters are presented
prediction making an educated guess as to what will happen next.
prefix letters added to the beggining of a word to change its meaning.
pro tagonist the central character in a story that is the "good guy."
reaction/react offer your own opinon of the reading material
resolution occurs at the end of a story and includes the story's action after the climax.
rising action the part of a story, including the exposition,which builds to the climax.
root word a word to which prefixes and suffixes are added.
sequential order orders in which the events in the story are presented to the reader
setting the environment of time and place where the action of a story occurs.
similie a comparison between two unlike things using like or as. Ex:her hair was as white as the snow.
suffix letters placed at the end of a word to change its meaning.
summarizing a consice (short yet detailed) explination of a reading selection. a smmary contains only the main ideas.
supporting details details that support the main idea of the passage.
suspense techniques used by the author to keep the readers interested in the story and wondering what will happen next
symbol an image, object, character, or action that stands for an idea beyond its literal meaning.
synonym two or more words that have similar meanings. Ex: slim/ skinny/ lean/ thin.
theme the underlying message of the selection that the author is trying to convey or communicate with the reader. theme may be thought of as the lesson or moral of the story.
tone the clues of the story that suggest the writer's own attitude toward elements in the story.
visualization the ability to "see" what you are reading.
voice voice is the authors style, the quality that makes his/her writing unique.
Created by: 2014dahkaim