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Genetic Unit Vocab

Heredity The passing of traits and genes to offspring from generation to generation.
Trait A characteristic.
Purebred Offspring that is bred from two parents of the same breed.
Hybrid Dominant and Recessive.
Offspring The product of the reproductive process of an animal / A child.
Genes set of info that controls a trait.
Alleles any form of a gene.
Dominant an allele whose trait always show up when the allele is present.
Recessive an allele that is hidden when the dominant allele in present.
Phenotype the physical appearance of a trait.
Genotype the genetic makeup or combination of alleles for a trait.
Homozygous 2 of the same allele for a trait.
Heterozygous 2 different alleles for a trait.
Codominance a condition where neither allele is dominant or recessive.
Meiosis the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm - father egg - mother) by which the number of chromosomes is cut in half.
Haploid Cells A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Diploid Cells A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mutations a change in gene or chromosome.
Insertion Type of mutation where extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the DNA.
Deletion Type of mutation where a section of DNA is deleted or lost.
Substitution Type of mutation where there is an exchange between two bases.
Sex-linked gene gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome.
Carrier A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait.
Sex chromosome pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine whether a person is male or female.
Genetic disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes.
Pedigree A chart that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait.
Selective breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation.
Inbreeding A selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed.
Hybridization A selective breeding method in which two genetically different individuals are crossed.
Clone organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced.
Genetic Engineering The transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits.
Gene therapy The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to fix the disorder.
Zygote a fertilized egg, produced by the joining of a sperm and an egg.
Fertilization The joining of a sperm and an egg.
Punnett Square A chart that helps determine the traits the offspring will have.
Probability A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.
Messenger RNA RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm.
Transfer RNA RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain.
Karyotype A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs.
Genome All of the DNA in one cell of an organism.
Created by: madison.hand