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chapter 3 section 2

molecules of life

TermDefinition
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
monosaccharide simple sugar contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio 1:2:1
disaccharide in living things, two monosaccharides can combine in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar
polyaccharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharided
protein organic ompounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
amino acid links of monomers that form proteins
peptide bond the two amino acids that form a covalent bond in a condensation reaction
polypeptide very long chains formed from amino acids
enzymes RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts are essential for the functioning of any cell
substate the reactant being catalyzed
active site folds in the enzyme with a shape that allows the substrate to fit into the active site
lipid large nonpolar organic molecules. they include waxes and steroids
fatty acid unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
phospholipid two, rather tahn three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid these molecules are composed of four fused rings with various functional groups attached to them
nucleic acid very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
deoxyridonnucleic acid (DNA) contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities polymer
ribonucleic acid (RNA) stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins. can also act as enzymes polymer
nucleotide made of three main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
Created by: campbellm19