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8th Science

Chapter 3 - A Beka Book

Minerals Substances that are found naturally in the earth and have a crystalline structure
Mineralogy The branch of geology that deals with the identification and classification of minerals
Native elements Substances that exist naturally in the earth's crust as single, uncombined elements
Halides The smallest group of minerals
Sulfides and sulfates Minerals that contain the element sulfur
Oxides Minerals that contain the element oxygen bonded to a metal
Minerals containing carbon bonded to oxygen Carbonates
Contain the element phosphorus and bonded to four oxygen elements Phosphates
Silicates The largest group of minerals
Crystals Geometric structures that are composed of atoms or molecules and have an orderly arrangement
A soft, slippery substance Graphite
Diamond The hardest naturally occurring substance known
Name seven characteristics that cam be used to identify minerals. 1. Color 2. Luster 3. Crystal shape 4. Hardness 5. Specific Gravity 6. Streak color 7. Acid test
Streak plate A piece of unglazed porcelain that you rub a rock on
Luster The way light is reflected from the surface of a mineral
Streak The line of powder left on a streak plate
Hardness The resistance of a smooth surface of a mineral to being scratched
Mohs scale Rates the hardness of a mineral
Brinell hardness test Strikes a ball to a mineral to test its hardness
Cleavage The tendency of a mineral to break readily along certain flat surfaces producing fragments with the same shape as the parent mineral
Conchoidal Shell-like
Specific gravity A number that compares and object's density to the density of water
Fluorescent minerals Glows particular colors when exposed to ultraviolet light in a darkened room
Phosphorescent minerals Continue to glow for a while after being exposed to ultraviolet light and the placed in the dark
Mining The process of extraction from the earth
Metals such as gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminum, and platinum are some of the earth's ___ ___ minerals mined from the earth. most important
Any mineral that contains a valuable metallic element is what? An ore
Metallurgy The science of extracting metals from the earth and preparing them for use
Aluminum The most abundant mineral in the earth's crust; refined by bauxite
What are the three steps to metallurgy? 1. Extraction 2. Refinement 3. Spaping
Refinement The removal of impurities by heat, chemical action, or a combination of the two, until a desired level of purify has been obtained
Bayer process In which bauxite is heated in a high- pressure container with lye is used to from alumina
Hal Heroult process In this process the alumina is dissolved in the mineral cryolite and electricity is used to remove aluminum metal
Iron The second most common mineral in the earth's crust
Blast furnace The one primary method of refining iron
Coke An impure form of carbon derived from coal
Steel An alloy of iron and carbon
Alloy metal mixture
Stainless steal an alloy of iron carbon and nickel
Copper A reddish-orange metal used to coat pennies
Lead Is used for radiation shielding and automobile batteries and small arms ammunition
Used in stainless steel, electrical heating elements, magnets Nickel
Used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion Tin
Used also to prevent corrosion and make coins Zinc
Precious metals Valued for their durability rarity and buety
Gold A precious metal
Bullion Bars (such as gold bars)
Silver Precious metal used to make jewelry tableware and other items
Platinum In recent years has become more valuable than gold on account of it's many uses
Precious stones The rarest most durable and most beautiful minerals prized for their hardness color and "fire”
"Fire" The dazzling way in which precious stones reflect light
Only ___ ___ ___ ___ can scratch a diamond. another crystal of diamond
Diamond pipes narrow vertical underground deposits that resemble the vents of extinct bolcanoes
A diamond's worth is based on what four properties (known as the four C's)? 1. Carat weight 2. Clarity 3. Color 4. Cut
Carat weight Measures a diamonds weight in metric carats
Clarity Depends on the presence of imperfections
Ruby The red variety of corumdum
Ruby's that have a brilliant star like pattern when light is shone through them Star ruby
Blue corundum Sapphire
Beryl it's clear form is valued both as a gemstone and as the source of the metal beryllium
Corundum is not usually valuable unless it is red or blue
Emerald Green beryl
Blue-green beryl with traces of oxide Aquamarine
Semiprecious stones Gems that are not as rare durable or esteemed as precious stones
Amethyst A form of quartz
Red spinel The "Black Princes Ruby"
Tourmaline and Chalcedony multicolored
Opal Iridescent
Garnet January's birthstone
Turquoise blue- green
Jade Green
Topaz November's birthstone
Lab created gemstones visually identical to natural gemstones
Stimulant (or imitation) gemstones Look like a natural gemstone but have different chemical and physical properties
Synthetic gemsones Identical to natural gemstones in appearance and chemical content
Overgrowth The process of a large crystal growing on and around a small crystal
Flame Fusion Procees Forms crystal rotating a seed crystal to encourage uniform formation
Pulled method Forms crystals by slowly withdrawing a seed crystal from ingredient powders melted in a container
Hydreothermal process Used to produce emeralds and non-gemstone minerals
Rock The hard material that makes up the earth's crust
Petrology The branch of geology that deals with the origin composition and structure of rocks
Igneous rocks Form from solidified magma
Sedimentary rocks Form from sediments cemented together by water pressure and chemical action
Metamorphic rocks Result when igneous or sedimentary rocks are "cooked" by intense heat and preassure
Intrusive rock Igneous rock that forms when magma cools and hardens while still underground
Extruded forced
Extrusive rock (volcanic rock) Is made when magma reaches the surface and is extruded out of the earth as lava that cools and hardens
Texture The look and feel of the materials of which they are composed
The chief condition affecting an igneous rock's texture is ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___. the rate at which the magma cools
Granite A common igneous rock that is coarse grained
Gabbro Another coarse grained rock
Rhyolite Has a finer texture than granite
The most common igneous rock is the fine grained extrusive rock ___. basalt
Porphyritic rocks Formed when magma cools slowly and then quickly, which gives the rocks a mixed texture
Amorphous Rocks made of magma that cools rapidly, letting no crystals form
Obsidian amorphous igneous rock "volcanic glass"
Pumice Porous rock that often can float on water
Soria "volcanic cinders" forms in the same fashion as pumice but has larger pores and a dark color
Concretions hard, round structures that form when minerals settle out of water and crystallize around a sand grain or other mineral fragment
Sedimentary rocks are referred to as ___ ___ because of their arrangement into layers. stratified rcoks
Stratum or bed; a horizontal rock layer that has a different type of rock layer above it
Law of superposition States that any undisturbed strata lie in the order they were laid down
Mechanical sediments The sand clay or rock fragments that are transported by physical means and deposited in a thick layer elsewhere
Clastic sedimentary rock Deposits of mechanical sediments that may be "glued" together by pressure or chemical action to form this type of sedimentary rock
What is the most abundant sedimentary rock? Shale
Sandstone Consists of grains of sand cemented together into rock
Conglomerate rock Rock that consists of smooth pebbles embedded in hardened sand or clay
Concrete A man made conglomerate rock consisting of sand and gravel held together by cement
Breccia A rock that contains rough angular fragments instead of smooth pebbles
Precipitate to crystalize
Chemical sedimentary rocks Rocks formed by chemical sediments
Forms when water seeps through rocks, causing minerals from the rocks to dissolve in the water and the precipitate and settle out of the solutions Chemical sediments
Limestone chemical sedimentary rock; at leas 50% of it consists of calcium carbonate
Chalk A type of limestone
Evaporrites Sediments that result from the evaporation of water
Salt domes Halite deposits that occur in deep, underground structures
Organic Sediments Remains of once living plants and animals
Organic sedimentary rocks The rocks organic sediments compose
Coal A useful substance considered an organic sediment
Fossil fuel Coal is called this because it is used for fuel and is derived from the remains of living things
Anthracite coal the highest quality coal
Bitumen coal The most common and widely used form of coal
Coal seams Layered formations usually buried in other sedimentary rock such as sandstone or shale
Overburden the upper layers of the ground
Underground mining Where miners must dig down into the veins of coal
Surface mining Removes coal from the surface of the earth
Longwall mining Uses a rotating drum that travels down a track while grinding coal from the coal seam
Continuous mining Uses a continuous miner to mine
Continuous miner A machine with a large rotating steel drum with teeth that remove coal from the coal vein
Retreat mining Where miners start t the back of a large coal room and room coal pillars as they work toward the entrance of the room
Metamorphism This term is used to describe the change of rock into a new type of rock
Contact metamorphism Results when rocks are "baked" by contact with hot magma
Regional metamorphism when a combination of heat and pressure caused by stress or movements causing rocks to change
Foliated rocks Rocks made up of layers like the leaves of a book
Slate Produced from shale
Nonfoliated rocks Metamorphic rocks that cannot be split into thin layers and other foliated rocks
Marble Formed by limestone
Geologic map Illustrate the location and structure of the earth's materials through various symbols lines and colors
Great job! :)
Created by: nelsonclan