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NUR 303: Ch 19 & 22

Heart and Neck Vessels & Peripheral Vascular System and Lymphatic System

TermDefinition
Angina pectoris acute chest pain that occurs when myocardial demand exceeds its oxygen supply
Aortic regurgitation (aortic insufficiency) incompetent aortic valve that allows backward flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole
Aortic stenosis calcification of aortic valve cusps that restricts forward flow of blood during systole
Aortic valve the left semilunar valve separating the left ventricle and the aorta
Apex of the heart tip of the heart pointing down toward the 5th left intercostal space
Apical impulse point of maximal impulse (PMI); pulsation created as the left ventricle rotates against the chest wall during systole, normally at the 5th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line
Base of the heart broader area of heart's outline located at the 3rd right and left intercostal spaces
Bell (of the stethoscope) cup-shaped endpiece used for soft, low-pitched heart sounds
Bradycardia slow heart rate, less than 50 beats per minute in the adult
Clubbing bulbous enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes that occurs with chronic cyanotic heart and lung conditions
Coarctation of aorta severe narrowing of the descending aorta, a congenital heart defect
Cor pulmonale right ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure due to pulmonary hypertension
Cyanosis dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Diaphragm (of the stethoscope) flat endpiece of the stethoscope used for hearing relatively high-pitched heart sounds
Diastole the heart's filling phase
Dyspnea difficult, labored breathing
Edema swelling of legs or dependent body part due to increased interstitial fluid
Erb's point traditional auscultatory area in the 3rd left intercostal space
First heart sound (S1) occurs with closure of the atrioventricular valves signaling the beginning of systole
Fourth heart sound (S4) S4 gallop, atrial gallop; very soft, low-pitched ventricular filling sound that occurs in late diastole
Gallop rhythm the addition of a 3rd or a 4th heart sound; makes the rhythm sound like the cadence of a galloping horse
Inching technique of moving the stethoscope incrementally across the precordium through the auscultatory areas while listening to the heart sounds
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increase in thickness of myocardial wall that occurs when the heart pumps against chronic outflow obstruction (e.g., aortic stenosis)
Midclavicular line (MCL) imaginary vertical line bisecting the middle of the clavicle in each hemithorax
Mitral regurgitation mitral insufficiency; incompetent mitral valve allows regurgitation of blood back into left atrium during systole
Mitral stenosis calcified mitral valve impedes forward flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole
Mitral valve left atrioventricular valve separating the left atrium and ventricle
Palpitation uncomfortable awareness of rapid or irregular heart rate
Paradoxical splitting opposite of a normal split S2 so that the split is heart in expiration, and in inspiration the sounds fuse to one sound
Pericardial friction rub high-pitched, scratchy extracardiac sound heard when the precordium is inflamed
Physiologic splitting normal variation in S2 heard as two separate compenents during inspiration
Precordium area of the chest wall overlying the heart and great vessels
Pulmonic regurgitation pulmonic insufficiency; backflow of blood through incompetent pulmonic valve into the right ventricle
Pulmonic stenosis calcification of pulmonic valve that restricts forward flow of blood during systole
Pulmonic valve right semilunar valve separating the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Second heart sound (S2) occurs with closure of the semilunar valves, aortic and pulmonic; signals the end of systole
Summation gallop abnormal mid-diastolic heart sound heard when both the pathologic S3 and S4 are present
Syncope temporary loss of consciousness due to decreased cerebral blood flow (fainting); caused by ventricular asystole, pronounced bradycardia, or ventricular fibrillation.
Systole the heart's pumping phase
Tachycardia rapid heart rate, greater than 95 beats per minute in the adult
Third heart sound (S3) soft, low-pitched ventricular filling sound that occurs in early diastole (S3 gallop) and may be an early sign or heart failure
Thrill palpable vibration on the chest wall accompanying severe heart murmur
Tricuspid valve right atrioventricular valve separating the right atrium and ventricle
Allen test test that determines the patency of the radial and ulnar arteries by compressing one artery site and observing return of skin color as evidence of patency of the other artery.
Aneurysm defect or sac formed by dilation in artery wall due to atherosclerosis, trauma, or congenital defect
Arrhythmia variation from the heart's normal rhythm
Arteriosclerosis thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
Atherosclerosis plaques of fatty deposits formed in the inner layer (intima) of the arteries
Bradycardia slow heart rate, less than 50 beats per minute in the adult
Bruit blowing, swooshing sound heard through a stethoscope when an artery is partially occluded
Cyanosis dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Diastole the heart's filling phase
Ischemia deficiency of arterial blood to a body part due to constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel
Lymph nodes small oval clumps of lymphatic tissue located at grouped intervals along lymphatic vessels
Lymphedema swelling of extremity due to obstructed lymph channel, nonpitting
Pitting edema indention left after examiner depresses the skin over swollen edematous tissue
Profile sign viewing the finger from the side to detect early clubbing
Pulse pressure wave created by each heartbeat, palpable at body sites where the artery lies close to the skin and over a bone
Pulsus alternans regular rhythm, but force of pulse varies with alternating beats of large and small amplitude
Pulsus bigeminus irregular rhythm; every other beat is premature; premature beats have weakened amplitude
Pulsus paradoxus beats have weaker amplitude with respiratory inspiration, stronger with expiration
Systole the heart's pumping phase
Tachycardia rapid heart rate, more than 95 beats per minute in the adult
Thrombophlebitis inflammation of the vein associated with thrombus formation
Ulcer open skin lesion extending into dermis, with sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue
Varicose veins dilated tortuous veins with incompetent valves
Created by: katelynreid