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What is Pharmacology The scientific study of how various substances interact with or alter the function of living organisms.
What are off-label drugs Drugs that are used for different purposes other than FDA approved.
Drug classifications-naming strategies-olol's, peril's, etc generic drugs have "stem" olol's or peril's etc. that links medications in the same class. Brand names can be creative and include marketing words that point to condition helped. Ex: Tamiflu, Lopressor
What are the sources of medications Plants, Animals and minerals
What are the drug laws? 1906- Pure Food and Drug Act prohibited altering or mislabeling medications. 1909- Opium Exclusion Act prohibited opium from being imported. 1914- Harrison Narcotic Act restricted the use of cocaine. 1938- The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (now FDA) 1970- Controlled Substance Act. Enforced by the US Drug Enforcement Agency.
What are the Drug Schedules? Show examples. S1- high abuse, no med, heroin S2- high abuse, some med, cocaine S3- less abuse, codine, valium S4- less abuse then S3, vicodin S5- less abuse then S2, Narcotic cough supressant
Names of drugs? Chemical, generic, trade, proprietary, and official
What is the EMS role in drug tampering? EMS must check container closely for small evidence of tampering and report suspected tampering.
What are the benefits of using newer drugs? They are designed to target only specific receptor sites on certain cells in an attempt to minimize side effects
What is an Agonist medication Initiate or alter cellular activity by attaching to receptor sites promoting cell response.
What is a antagonist medication Prevents endogenous or exogenous agonist chemicals from reaching cell receptor sites.
Affinity The ability of a medication to bind with a particular receptor site.
Efficacy The ability to initiate cell activity in a therapeutic manner.
Potency The amount of the drug needed to get cell response.
Alpha-1 Alpha 1 receptors - smooth muscle contraction
Beta-1 heart muscle contraction
Beta-2 smooth muscle relaxation - bronchodilator
What is sympathetic fight or flight, prepares body for battle
What is parasympathetic stay and play, homeostasis
Things that affect a patient's response to drugs? age weight environment genetics
What are the Pregnancy drug levels? A- No fetal harm B- Animals were good, never tested on human C- Drugs should be given if benefits outweigh risk D- Human fetal risk, but benefits could be wanted X- Animals and human fetal risk, no benefit
What are the ethical legal considerations of a Placebo? The practice is demeaning to patients and may lead to discipline or criminal prosecution, undermines the credibility or the medical profession,
Susceptibility to adverse effects Genetic disorders, primarily pulmonary hypertension and sickle cell disease.
What is the Therapeutic index/threshold? Wide? Narrow? The median effective dose and the median lethal dose.
Addiction When you mentally or physically crave and need a drug.
Tolerance When medications do not effect you because you use them so often
Cross-tolerance Having a tolerance to a certain medication because you are used to abusing ones in the same class
Habituation Having tolerance to certain medications, due to consistent use
Dependence The need for certain medications to maintain "normal" life function
Factors that influence duration of drug effects: Distribution, Absorption and Elimination
Distribution the way medication travels through the body
Absorption how medication is metabolized
Elimination zero order first order
What is bioavailability? The chosen route of administration determines the percentage of unchanged medication that reaches systemic circulation
What is first-pass metabolism? The amount of drug eliminated from the body, also known as Half life
What are the routes of administration? IV, IO, Nasal, rectal, transdermal, sublingual, bucal, IM, SubQ
What are factors involved metabolite active- remains capable of some pharmacological activity inactive- no longer has the ability to alter
What is biotransformation? the alteration of a substance, such as a drug, within the body.
Acid effects on drugs?
Alkaline effects on drugs?
Etomidate is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia
Benzodiazepines, give examples Treat anxiety and seizures, Lorazepam, Versed
Paralyzing drugs, give examples These medications provide muscle relaxation that facilitates airway device placement and prevents patients-ventilator asynchrony during mechanical ventilation. Succinylcholine, Rocuronium.
Anticholinergic-Respiratory meds Anticholinergics are a class of drugs that block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. They are used to treat diseases like asthma, incontinence, gastrointestinal cramps, and muscular spasms
Lidocaine class 1 antidysrhythmic medication that slows the movement of sodium through channels.
Beta-blockers, names, effects, and uses Reduce heart rate by decreasing cardiac output, Atenolol
Calcium Channel blockers, names, effect, and uses Reduce heart rate and blood pressure, dilate blood vessels, Diltiazem
Adenosine used to treat certain cardiac dysrhysmia but not included in the Vaughan-Williams classification
Alpha-blockers, names effect and uses Reduces Blood Pressure and decreases systemic vascular resistance. Clonidine, labetalol
Ace inhibitors, names, effects and uses Lotensin, Altace: Lowers Blood Pressure and cardiac afterload is reduced.
What is the Rein-Angiotensin system physiological system that regulates blood pressure
What is the Vague nerve- neurotransmitter released? A major component of the parasympathetic nervous system. ACh is released
Acetylcholinesterase an enzyme that occurs especially in some nerve endings and in the blood and promotes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine
Atropine used for the treatment of bradycardia when vagus nerve stimulation is suspected
Catecholamines any of various amines (as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) that function as hormones or neurotransmitters or both
Epi Raises blood pressure.
Norepi beta 1 and alpha causing an increase in blood pressure
Dopamine used to increase blood pressure
Vasopressin Helps prevent loss of water from the body by reducing urine output and helping the kidneys reabsorb water into the body.
Nitroglycerin Vasodilator for chest pain
Mannitol decrease intracranial pressure, removing excess water
What is the IV fluid used during blood transfusion? Normal Saline
What is MOA for Anticoagulants? Inhibiting the production of vitamin K in the liver
Narcotic analgesics? Give examples morphine, fentanyl, dilaudid
What are drug for reducing stomach acid sodium bicarb
Glucagon Naturally occurring peptide secreted by the pancreas, used to treat HYPOglycemia
Beta-2 Respiratory medication The beta-2 adrenergic agonists are a large group of drugs that mimic the actions of naturally occurring catecholamines such as norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. albuterol, metaproterenol.
what are the 5 phases of cardiac cell activity? 4- the cardiac cycle begins at Phase 4 where cells are at rest. 0- begins with the rapid influx of sodium ions through channels in the cardiac cells. Potassium ions slowly begin to exit the cell and depolarization occurs, altering the electrical charge present in the cell. 1- Sodium influx decreases while potassium continues to exit the cell slowly. 2- begins movement of calcium into the cell while potassium continues to leave the cell. 3- calcium movement ceases with continued outflow of potassium.
absolute refractory period The early phase of cardiac repolarization, wherein the heart muscle cannot be stimulated to depolarize; also known as the effective refractory period.
relative refractory period The period in the cell firing cycle at which it is possible but difficult to restimulate the cell to fire another impulse.
Created by: carsrock22