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Biology Study Keyy

9.29.15

TermDefinition
cells the basic unit of life
cell theory all living things are made up of cells cells are the basic units of living things cells come from cells
cell membrane a thin flexible barrier that surrounds the cell
what is the cell membrane sometimes called? the plasma membrane
nucleus a large membrane enclosed structure that controls genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many cell's activities
Eukaryotes cells that enclose their DNA in nuclei
Prokaryotes cells that do not enclose their DNA in the nuclei
prokaryotes smaller and simpler do not separate genetic material in the nucleus carries out activities associated with living things bacteria
eukaryotes larger and more complex contains internal membranes nucleus separates the genetic material from the cell plants and animals
cytoplasm the fluid portion of the cell outside the nucleus
do prokaryotes have a cytoplasm? yes, but not a nucleus
organelles little organs
nucleus contains all of the cell's DNA and the coded intructions to make proteins
do prokaryotes have a nucleus? no, but they do have DNA
chromosomes carries the cell's genetic information
where are chromosomes found? in the nucleus
nucleolus where the assembly of ribosomes begins
vacuoles stores water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates
vacuoles large, sac-like, membrane enclosed structures
do plants have a vacuole? yes, but they have a central vacuole
where are vacuoles found for? some uncellular organisms and some animals
vesselles store and move materials between cell organelles
lysosomes "the clean up crew"
lysosomes small organelles filled with enzymes they break down lipids, carbohydrates and proteins ino small molecules
cytoskeleton network of protein filaments that gives eukaryote cells thier shape
cytoskeleton flagella and cillia helps maintain cell shape and is also involved in movement microfilaments and microtubules make up the cytoskeleton
microfilaments threadlike structures made up of actin(protein) they help cells move
microtubules hollow structures made up of tubulins(protein) they help maintain the cell's shape important in cell division and helps separate chromosomes
centrioles located near the nucleus and helps organize cell division
are centrioles found in plant cells? no
ribosomes small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells
what are ribosomes known as? "the boss"
proteins are assembled on what? ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum internal membrane that the eukaryote cell contains
where are lipid components ofthe cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell? the endoplasmic reticulum
rough endoplasmic reticulum ER involved in the sythesis of proteins/ rought because ribosomes are found on its surface
smooth endoplasmic reticulum it is called this because no ribosomes are found on it's surface
golgi apparatus where proteins that were produced in the rough ER move into a stack of flattened membranes modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials
what does the golgi apparatus do? modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials
chloroplasts the biological equivalents of solar power plants capture energy from sunlight and converts it into food two membranes surround it
mitochondria found in all eukryotic cells, including plants power plants of a cell converts chemical energy from food into compounds two membranes/ outer and inner has their own genetic information
cell wall most prokaryotes a strong supporting layer around that membrane supports, shapes and protects the cell
which has a cell wall, plants or animals? plants, not animals
lipid bilayer gives cell membranes a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Created by: nalcazar