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Pedi: Growth and Development

QuestionAnswer
Who was Sigmund Freud best known today for creating the field of psychoanalysis to treat psychological problems. He believed that sexual desire was the primary motivator for human behavior.
Who was Erik Erickson He was active in social psychology and believed that personality development occurs via a series of eight stages. Erikson believed that each stage was marked by conflict, and when resolved, resulted in a favorable outcome or "virtue". First 5 children.
Who was John Piaget He was a Swiss psychologist for children. Piaget's work focused on determining how we acquire knowledge. He believed that knowledge is "constructed" by interacting with reality.
Who was Lawrence Kohlberg founded the fields of moral psychology and moral education from his cognitive developmental theory. He identified six stages of moral development from a sequence of various moral types.
How did Freud's psychosexual affect an infant-1year Oral Stage: Diverse pleasure from oral stimulation. Uses mouth to explore new objects
How did Erickson's psychosocial affect an infant- 1year Trust vs mistrust: Develops trust as needs are met. Failure to achieve trust interferes with the ability to move on to the next stage. The ability to trust depends on the quality of the primary caregivers.
How did Piaget's cognitive affect an infant- 1year Learns to imitate behavior and develops object performance. Object performance means that the child is able to know that objects still exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or felt.
How did Freud's psychosexual affect a toddler 1-3 anal stage: the child controls through and focuses on toilet training
How did Erickson's psychosocial affect a toddler 1-3 Autonomy vs shame and doubt: learns to control body functions, and activities of daily living such as eating, playing, and dressing. Age of negativity.
How did Piaget's cognitive affect a toddler 1-3 Preoperational Stage 2-7years: Egocentric. Magical thinker. Children start to use symbols such as language to represent objects
How did Kohlberg moral affect a toddler 1-3 preconvention 2-4: Beginning to learn right from wrong. Toddler will base actions on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of pleasure. Morals are external. Rules are starting to be put in place and the toddler obeys primary caregivers
How did Freud's psychosexual affect preschool 3-6 phallic stage; the child becomes aware of his genitalia. Freud also proposed that during this stage boys develop an Oedipus complex, meaning that boys unconsciously develop sexual feelings for their mother and see their father as a rival
How did Erickson's psychosocial affect preschool 3-6 Initiative vs guilt: Learns to acquire power and control through directing play activities and other kind of social interactions with other children
How did Piaget's cognitive affect preschool 3-6 Same as the toddler
How did Kohlberg moral affect preschool 3-6 Same as toddler
How did Freud's psychosexual affect school age 6-12 Latency stage: Playing with same sex peers and learning are the focus of this stage
How did Erickson's psychosocial affect school age 6-12 Industry vs inferiority: wants to succeed, and develops friendships. Needs to feel pride in his/her accomplishments and abilities
How did Piaget's cognitive affect school age 6-12 Concrete Operations 7-11: develops logical thoughts and inductive reasoning. Likes to collect and sort. Focuses on concrete objects. Lacks ability to think abstractly
How did Kohlberg moral affect school age 6-12 Conventional; begins to understand which behavior's are "good". Conformity and loyalty are important. Children want to please authority and peers as well
How did Freud's psychosexual affect adolescent 12-18 Genital Stage: puberty occurs and sexual urges are directed to the opposite sex
How did Erickson's psychosocial affect adolescent 12-18 Identity vs role confusion: Focuses on bodily changes. Views peers as important to establish identity and independence. needs to develop a sense of self and self-esteem
How did Piaget's cognitive affect adolescent 12-18 Formal operations: thinks abstractly. egocentric thinking. Can solve hypothetical problems and can plan ahead
How did Kohlberg moral affect adolescent 12-18 Post conventional: Views correct behaviors in terms of social norms and expectations. Defines morals values and principles. Wants to achieve expectations set by peers as well as authority
What happens in the neonate period (birth-1 month) It is a time of significant physical growth. The neonate gains about 5-7 ounces per week, and head circumference increases by 1.5 cm during the first month of life. During the first 6 months, length increases by 1 inch per month.
What can a baby do in the neonate stage The baby can lift there head up only when in the prone position and with little control and very short periods of time. The baby is also very alert to high pitched sounds.
What may cause a bulging fontanels(soft spot) an increase in intracranial pressure
What may cause a depression of fontanels (soft spot) Dehydration
How often does a neonate eat 2-3 ounces every 2-3 hours
What are risk with propping up bottles increases the risk of otitis media, aspiration, and dental cavities. It also denies the infant close human contact.
What is the sucking reflex Involuntary sucking movements that occur with or without stimulation, continue throughout infancy, and may take place during sleep. The sucking reflex is particularly important in regards to nutrition
What is the tonic neck reflex When the baby is in a supine position the head is quickly turned to one side. The neonate extends the arm and the leg on the side of the body to which the head is turned It stops the baby from rolling over until he is able to. Should go away 3-4.
What is the grasp reflex Normal in neonates, the grasp reflex occurs when the infant's palms are stroked. The neonate grasps the examiner's hands very firmly.
What is the moro reflex Normal up to about 4 months of age and is also called the startle reflex. This reflex is elicited by a sudden loud noise. The legs flex, the infant cries out briefly, and the arms assume an embracing posture.
What is the rooting reflex Normal reflex in newborns and should disappear by about 4 months of age. When the baby's cheek is touched or stroked along the side of the mouth, the baby turns his head toward the stimulated side and begins to suck.
What happens when the baby hits 2-4 months At this age the baby is still gaining about 5-7 ounces a week and is able to coordinate sucking-and swallowing. The baby now eats every 3-4 hours and has established regular eating patterns. Can also turn from side to back
What happens when the baby hits 6-8 months Weight gain begins to slow to a rate of about 3-5 ounces per week, but total weight is double the birth weight by 6 months.The baby eats 6-8 ounces about four times a day. Baby foods. Teeth being to erupt
What happens when the baby hits 8-10 months The infant gains about 3-5 ounces a week and grows about 1 cm per month. He/she is able to pick up small objects and the pincer grasp is well established. He/she uses the pincer grasp to eat finger foods, an activity that he enjoys. eat 4x's. Crawl
What happens when the baby hits 10-12 months As infancy concludes, the baby gains about 3-5 ounces a week. Head circumference equals chest circumference. At the end of the first year of life, the baby's birth weight should be triple what it was at birth. Uses a cup and feeds self.6-8 teeth.
If a child is not developed what signs by 2-4 weeks then the nurses knows that there can be a delay in development •Failure to gain weight •Poor sucking reflex •Difficulty breast or bottle feeding •Absent or poor blink reflex when exposed to bright light •Unable to focus on a object that is moving •Movement of limbs •Does not respond to loud noises.
What a signs of parent-child failure to bond •Parents seem reluctant to touch or hold the child. They only do so when necessary •Parents do not readily comfort the child •Parents are reluctant to talk to or interact with the child. •Parents have minimal eye contact with the child.
What happens in the toddler stage 1-3 Is exploration and curiosity. Being to achieve functions of bodily functions and achieves potty training. Shows a desire to be independent and rapidly gain language skills.
What are signs of potty training readiness Ability to alternate feet when climbing upstairs •Ability to stay dry for two hours; decreased number of wet diapers •Regular bowel movements •Ability to verbalize need •Ability to remove own clothes •Motivation and desire to please
What is physiologic anorexia Occurs when growth rate decreases and appetite is less
Created by: spilkington11