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MB Chapter 3-2

Chapter 3 Section 2 Terms

TermDefinition
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ration of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.
monosaccharide a monomer of a carbohydrate; a simple sugar that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1:2:1
disaccharide two monosaccharaides that combine in a condensation reaction to form this double sugar
polysaccharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharaides
protein organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
amino acid these linked together create proteins
peptide bond two amino acids forming a covalent bond
polypeptide a long chain of amino acids
enzyme RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts; essential for the functioning of any cell
substrate the reactant being catalyzed
active site fold in an enzyme
lipid large, nonpolar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water
fatty acid unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
phospholipid have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
nucleic acid very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and direst its cell activities
ribonucleic acid (RNA) stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
nucleotide made of three main components; a phosphate group, a five- carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
Created by: lakatosv19