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Biology: Chapter 3.2

Chapter 3.2 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
Monosaccharide a monomer of a carbohydrate
Disaccharide when two monosaccharaides in living things combine in a condensation reaction to form double sugar
Polysaccharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharaides
Protein organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Amino Acid when proteins are formed from the linkage of monomers called this
Peptide Bond when two amino acids form a covalent bond called this
Polypeptide very long chains that amino acids often form
Enzyme RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts, which is essential for the functioning of any cell
Substrate the reactant being catalyzed
Active Site folds of an enzyme
Lipid large, nonpolar organic molecules
Fatty Acid un-branched carbon chains that make up most lipids
Phospholipid two, rather than three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
Wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
Steroid molecules that are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
Nucleic Acid very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins; can also act as enzymes
Nucleotide thousands of linked monomers that make up the polymers DNA and RNA; made of three main components: phosphate group, five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
Created by: truongm19