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22. Fungi

Leaving Cert Biology

QuestionAnswer
What is the study of fungi called Mycology
What are the walls of fungi made of Chitin
Do fungi have a membrane enclosed nucleus and mitochondria Yes
How do fungi reproduce Spores
Fungi secrete enzymes into food and absorb molecules, what type of organisms are they Heterotrophic
The body structure consists of thread like structure called hyphae which together form what structure Mycelium
What type of fungi live on live hosts and do not kill their host Obligate parasites
What type of fungi kill the host and feed on the dead remains Facultative parasites
Name two edible fungi Field mushroom and truffle
Name two poisonous fungi Death cap and destroying angel
Rhizopus stolonifer is better known as what fungi Bread mould
When a hyphae grows up on the surface, what is it called Stolon
Some hyphae have a larger surface than others, what are they called Rhizoids
In asexual reproduction when hyphae grow upwards, what are they know as Sporangiophores
The swollen tip of a sporangiophore is called what Sporangium
What do you call the wall at the base of the sporangium Columella
What happens to the cells present in the sporangium They divide by miotosis to form spores
When conditions are favourable what happens to the sporangium It bursts to release spores
When spores are released and if they land on a suitable substrate, new hyphae grow, what type of reproduction is this Asexual reproduction
In sexual reproduction, two different hyphae are needed, what name is given to the two hyphae Positive and negative strain
When a positive and negative strain hyphae grow close to each other, what happens Two swellings occur opposite each other and they eventually touch
When the two swellings in the positive and minus strain touch, what happens next Hapolid nuclei (sex cells) move in forming a progametangium
When a cross wall forms on the progametangium, what is the structure called Gametangium
When the cross walls dissolve, many fertilisations take place to produce what Dipoloid zygote nuclei
A tough, black walled structure forms around the diploid zygote nuclei, what is it called Zygospore
When conditions are favourable what happens the zygospore It germinates by meiosis, a haploid hypha grows out and produces a sporangium at the top which then produces new hyphae
Are yeast multicellular or unicellular Unicellular
What shape and size are yeast cells Tiny round or oval
The walls of yeast cells are made of what type of carbohydrate Chitin
What is present inside a yeast cell Nucleus, cytoplasm, food storage vacoules, large vacoule
Yeasts respire anaerobically to breakdown sugars (glucose) into what 2 ethanol+ 2 carbon dioxide
What name is given to the asexual reproduction method that occurs in yeasts Budding
During budding does the cell divide by meiosis or mitosis Mitosis
Sometimes when a yeast is growing rapidly new buds may remain attached for some time, what term is given to this chain of buds Colony
Name two economic benefits of fungi Edible or used in food and drink industry
Name two economic disadvantages of fungi Cause disease and food spoilage
Name some common disease caused by fungi Soft rot, ringworm, athletes foot
What techniques are carried out to exclude unwanted microorganisms Aseptic techniques
When all microorganisms are destroyed, what is this called Sterile
Why is it necessary to seal a petridish with microorganisms growing on it with tape Because its unknown if microorganisms that are growing are harmful
Name some steps that should be taken to avoid contamination by unwanted microorganisms Sterilise equipment, flame equipment before and after use
When investigating the growth of leaf yeast on agar plates, why do you have to wash your hands first. To reduce the chance of microorganisms being on your hands
What should you clean the bench with Disinfectant
Why should you heaten the tip of the forceps in flame for a few minutes To ensure there will be no microorganisms
What id agar derived from Seaweed
Why should you use a sterile forceps to pick up the leaf To prevent transfer of microorganisms
Why should you put a piece of blu tack or vaseline on upper surface of leaf To attach leaf to the lid
Are there more microorganisms present on the upper or lower surface of a leaf Lower surface
Why should you attach the leaf to the lid of the petri dish Leaf cells can expel there spores onto the surface of the agar
At what temperature should you put the incubator at 25C
Why should the plates be incubated upside down Prevents condensation forming on the lids
How should you dispose of the agar plates with microorganisms present STerilising in autoclave or pressure cooker for 15mins or immersed in dettol for 24hrs
Created by: gcu biology