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Maxwell Anatomy II

Test II

Arteries carry blood _____ from the heart Away
These numerous and small vessels serve this purpose Exchange
Arteries> ______> ________>_________> _________ arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
How many circuits does the heart have? 2
What are the 2 major arteries that leave the heart? Pulmonary and systemic
Do capillaries have thin walls or thick walls? Thin
Which is more extensive the systemic or pulmonary circuit Systemic
Where does blood become oxygenated? The lungs
What color depicts arteries of the systemic circuit? Red
What does deoxygenated mean? Not as much oxygen as it use to be
Where does blood become deoxygenated? The systemic capillaries
Where does blood become oxygenated? The pulmonary capillaries
What do arteries not carry? Oxygenated blood
What are 2 important facts about arteries? 1. They carry blood away from the heart 2. It is systemic oxygenated
What are 2 important facts about veins? 1. They carry blood back to the heart. 2. It is systemic deoxygenated
What does the left side of the heart pump? Where to? Oxygenated blood, through the systemic circuit (systemic aorta)
What does the right side of the heart pump? Where to? Deoxygenated blood,the pulmonary circuit
What type of organ is the heart? Located where? Midline organ, in the medistrium
What covers the heart? A double layer pericardium
What is the pericardium? A double layered sac with a space between
What is the pericardium filled with? Pericardial fluid
What is the order from outer to inner? Visceral pericardium, parietal space, parietal pericardium. Parietal pericardium, parietal space, visceral pericardium
Where does the heart get its blood supply? It has its own
What are the first branches from the systemic aorta? The right and left coronary artery
What is the thin walled receiving chamber? Atrium
What is the thick walled pumping chamber? Ventricle
What does the left atrium do? Receives blood returning from the pulmonary circuit and pumps it into the left ventricle
What does the right atrium do? Receives blood returning from the systemic circuit and pumps it into the right ventricle.
________ have a thick myocardium. Ventricles
Which ventricle has a thicker myocardium that the right ventricle? Left
What is systole? Contraction or pumping phase
What is diastole? Resting or filling phase
Under what phase do the ventricles fill with blood? Diastole
What is atrial systole? Contraction of atria and it pumps blood into the ventricles
What is ventricular systole? Contraction of ventricles and it pumps blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteries
Which comes first atrial systole or ventricular systole? Atrial systole
What is the average heart rate? 70-75 bpm
What is the average cardiac cycle? 0.8 seconds
How long does auricular systate last? Ventricular? Complete cardia diastate? Auricular= 0.1 seconds. Ventricular=0.3 seconds. Complete=0.4 seconds
What is the purpose of heart valves? Reduce back flow of blood
What are the two types of heart valves? Atrioventricular and semilunar
What is the purpose of atrioventricular valves? Prevent flood from flowing backwards into the atria (from the ventricles)
What is the purpose of the semilunar valves? Prevent blood from flowing backwards into the ventricles (from the aortae)
Is all back flow abnormal? No, there is normal and abnormal back flow
What is a heart murmur? Too much back flow
What is valvular regurgitation? Blood leaks in the wrong direction
Does the heart stimulus arise in the brain? No, the brain does not affect the heart
What type of stimulus causes the heart to beat? Myogenic, impulse by muscle
What does it mean to say the heart stimulus is intrinsic? It arises within the heart
What is the atrioventricular septum? The connective tissue between the atrium and ventricle
What is the purpose of the atrioventricular septum? To act as a barrier to passage of impulse
What is a nickname for the SA node? Pacemaker
Where do impulses go after they are generated in the SA node? Atrioventricular septum
What type of muscles do ventricles have? Ventricular muscles
What is the function of ventricular muscles? They act as a conduction system to get rapid transmission to ensure ventricles contract efficiently
Where is the electrical signal terminated? Purkinje fibers
What would happen if the electrical signal of the heart moved very fast? The atrium and ventricles would contract at the same time
What is another name for unsynchronous beating? Fibrillation
In terms of electrical events which events occur first then second? Atrial events then ventricle events
Are heart contractions and blood flow electrical? No
Where do electrical impulses arise? The SA node
What is an ECG? What does it do? Electrocardiogram. It records electrical events
What is ECG sometimes referred to as EKG The "K" originates from the German spelling
Which is more serious atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation? Ventricular
What is defibrillation? A "reset"
Homeostasis is a balance between what? Autonomic branches
What does parasympathetic mean? Rest and digest, 70bpm
What does sympathetic mean? Fight or flight
How fast does a denervated heart beat? 100bpm
What is cardiac output? The volume of blood pumped by the heart in 1 minute
What does heart rate affect? Stroke volume
What 3 things does stroke volume influence? 1. How much blood is in the ventricles 2. End diastolic volume 3. Strength of contraction
CO= ___ x ___ CO= HR x SV
What is the autonomic principal of dual innervation? That we have a sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
What causes cardiac contractility? The sympathetic nervous system
What happens during cardiac contractility? The heart beats stronger
How does the parasympathetic nervous system influence heart rate? Through the SA node
Where are the cardiac centers of the brain located? In the medulla oblongata
What is the biggest part of the brain? The cerebrum
What does the cerebrum control? Conscious activity
What do the cardiac centers regulate? Parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system
What happens with a positive chronotropic effect? The heart beats stronger and increased contractibility
What does the vagus nerve do? Slows heart down, pacemaker
What happens with a positive inotropic effect? Increased strength of contraction
What type of effector is the heart? Autonomic
Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter for what nervous system? Parasympathetic
Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter for what nervous system? Sympathetic
What happens when you put Ach on skeletal muscle versus heart muscle? Skeletal contracts and heart slows down
When is a chemical secreted? When a nerve impulse gets to the end of the pathway
What is the entire circulatory time? 1 minute or 30 seconds per side
Do both sides of the heart pump the same amount of blood? Yes, cardiac output does not differ
Increased heart rate reduces what? Filling time, end diastolic volume and cardiac output
Stroke volume is proportional to ______. End diastolic volume
What is the formula for normal end systolic volume? End diastolic volume - Stroke volume
What is ejection fraction? The amount of blood ejected when the heart beats
When exercising as the ejection fraction increases what else increases? Contractility and cardiac output
What does low ejection fraction mean? The heart is not functioning well. Approximately 30%
If you have an increased heart rate why doesn't stroke volume fall? Because of increased contractility and venous return
Why would stroke volume fall with very high heart rates? Because venous return cannot compensate, not enough filling time
When veins constrict what happens to venous return? It increases
What does Starlings law state? Stroke volume determines end diastolic volume
Why does exercise break Starlings law? Because sympathetic stimulation to ventricles increases contractility.
Created by: acegirl5