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Infection Prevention

Nursing care to prevent infection

What are some risk factors in infectious disease transmission? age, nutritional status, stress, disease process
What are interventions for preventing infection transmission in regards to the infectious agent? Hand Hygiene
What are interventions for preventing infection transmission in regards to the reservoir? Perform hand hygiene and use proper methods of asepsis to clean equipment and work space
What are interventions for preventing infection transmission in regards to the modes of transmission? Hand hygiene; proper cleansing of equipment
What are interventions for preventing infection transmission in regards to the portal of entry&exit? sterilize equipment (needles or any other invasive equipment)
What are interventions for preventing infection transmission in regards to the susceptible host? use of antibiotics; healthy lifestyles; maintaining strong immune system
What are the bodies normal defenses against infection? skin, mouth, eyes, respiratory tract, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, vagina
What are the events of the inflammatory response? Vascular& cellular responses: acute inflammation=immediate response to injury. rapid vasodilation occurs, allowing increased blood flow& warmth @ site of injury; swelling and pain occur @ this point, WBC arrive @ site, phagocytosis occurs; fever
When an injury occurs and inflammation is present what happens once the WBC arrive at the site of injury? phagocytosis, fever due to release pyrogens from WBC; accumulation of dead tissue/cells, WBC forms exudate @ site of inflammation; platelets&plasma proteins such as fibrinogen form mesh like matrix @ site of inflammation to prevent its spread
How does the body repair tissues Damaged cells are replaced with new healthy cells; new cells undergo a gradual maturation until they take on the same structural characteristics, granule tissue is not as strong as tissue collagen and assumes form of scar tissue
What are signs and symptoms of a localized infection pain, tenderness, redness, edema
What are signs and symptoms of a systemic infection fever, headache, nausea, malaise
Define fever Elevation in the hypothalamic set point so body temp, is regulated at a higher level
What are causes of fever? Infections of ear, lungs, skin, throat, bladder, kidney, conditions causing inflammation, side effects of drugs, cancer, vaccines, blood clots, autoimmune disease, hormone disorders
what are symptoms of/related to fever in children? lethargy, fussiness, poor appetite, sore throat, cough, ear pain, vomiting, diarrhea
What are symptoms of/related to fever in adults? headache, vomitting, aches, lethargy, sore throat, diarrhea
How do you treat a fever? Over the counter drugs; acetaminophen (tylenol) or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen)
What is the difference between medical and surgical asepsis? medical asepsis reduces the number of microorganisms present& surgical asepsis eliminates microorganisms entirely
What is the rationale for standard precautions? To reduce risk of transmission of blood borne and other pathogens in hospitals; to protect yourself and your patient
Describe data required to assess infection Defense mechanisms, susceptibility, knowledge of how infections are transmitted, travel history, immunizations, vaccinations, history, clinical condition, medical history
List precautions to take for diff types of isolation? Contact:Come into contact w/ blood/ body fluids- wear gown, glove; Droplet:transmitted by large droplets expelled in air-wear gown, gloves, mask; Airborne:transmitted by smaller droplets-gloves, gown, Na5 respirator;
What impact do infections have on the geriatric population and their community resources? Infection has a huge impact on the geriatric population due to their age and compromised immune systems; more likely to get sick or generate infection b/c defense mechanisms are not as strong; less capable of producing lymphocytes to fight off pathogens
Created by: amandamarie194