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BIO exam 1

energy capacity to do work; requires material & energy.
reproduction to make more of itself
homeostasis staying the same, internal environment**
evolution frequency of changes in population. Adaptations that stuck around from generation - generation.
KPCOFGS K-kingdom P-phylum C-class O-order F-family G-genus S-species
Main domains? Archae, Bacteria, Eukarya
prokaryotes lack of nucleus
eukaryotes w/ nucleas
taxonomy assignment of binomial(two part name) to each species. First word(capitalized): genus second word: specific species name. Homo sapiens.
biosphere zone of air, land, and water on earth where living organisms are found
population where individual organisms are found, members of a species within a particular area
community all the different populations in the same area
biodiversity total number of species, variability of their genes, and the ecosystems in which they live
biology study of life
observations using 5 senses, instruments, knowledge/past experiences
inductive reasoning creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a whole
hypothesis a well educated guess or explanation for a natural event. must be able to be repeated
deductive reasoning if, then logic.
experimental design how a scientist plans to conduct his experiment
model representation of an actual subject
theory concepts that join together by well supported and related hypothesis. supported by a broad range of observations and repeated positive experiments
principle something accepted by an overwhelming number of people. (evolution)
abiotic the nonliving aspects. sunlight, inorganic nutrients, water availability, wind speed, average temperature, type of soil, and conditions
biotic various populations of species that form a community
autotrophs self feeders. produce their own food and food for other organisms in the population by an outside energy source.
heterotrophs need an outside source, they consume food.
detritus partially decomposed matter in the water and soil.
ecological pyramid large energy losses that occur between successive trophic levels
trophic level all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain
reservoir source normally unavailable to producers; fossilized remains, rocks, deep sea sediments
exchange pools source from which organisms generally take chemicals such as the atmosphere or soil
biotic community chemicals move along food chains perhaps never entering a pool
water cycle step 1 fresh water is distilled from salt water, suns rays cause fresh water to evaporate from sea water and the salts are left behind
water cycle step 2 condensation occurs, amount of water evaporating from the ocean exceeds the amount of precipitation that falls back into the ocean; often the excess moves over and falls on land.
water cycle step 3 water also evaporates from land. plants. bodies of water. gravity eventually returns all fresh water to the sea .
precipitation rain snow sleet hail and fog
aquifers rock layers that contain water and release it in appreciable quantities to wells or springs.
How are aquifers recharged? when snow/rain percolate into the soil
H20 human activities using too much aquifer water, ground water levels are falling-could run out
phosphorous cycle limited for plants. p moves from rocks on land to the oceans where it gets trapped in sediments. P then moves back onto land following a geological upheavel
p human activities fertilizers, cause too much algae in water, when algae die decomposers use all the oxygen so massive fish kill
nitrogen cycle unavailable for plants - also limiting nutrient for plants
nitrogen fixation nitrogen gas converts into ammonium ions - plants can use
nitrification nitrogen gas converted to nitrate - ammonium ions in the soil are converted to nitrate by soil bacteria---first nitrite producing bacteria convert ammonium ions-nitrite; and then nitrate producing bacteria convert nitrite to nitrate
chemautotrophs two groups of bacteria in nitrification called the nitrifying bacteria
dentrification conversion of nitrate back to nitrogen gas-enter the atmosphere, would counterbalance nitrogen fixation except human activites
nitrogen cycle human activities fertilizer does same as p, fertilizer use results in nitrous oxide - causes acid rain and ozone depletion
deserts rainfall: less than 25 cm temp:v. hot animals: reptiles, snakes, insects, kangaroo, coyotes, hawk, rodents
savannas some trees cool dry season ---hot rainy season trees: acacia animals: elephants, giraffes, lions, hyenas, cheetahs, leopards,zebras, buffalo. rhino
grasslands rainfall greater than 25 cm no trees grasses - seasonal bison migrate ground squirrels hibernate
shrublands dry summers - rain during winter small thick evergreen leaves - waxy - flammable quickly regrow coyotes jackrabbits gophers rodents
tropical forests minimum of 190 cm rainfall richest land most wildlife - variety of animals, plants, insects
temperate decidous forests south of taiga 75 - 150 cm rainfall seasons well defined oak beech maple leaves fall & regrow squirrels skunks rabbits turkeys pheasants red foxes deer bears
coniferous forests cone/needle trees spruce pine fir v cold lots of snow mountains deer moose bear mountain lion beavers
tundra 20 cm rainfall not a desert bc of melting snow - creates little ponds and bogs short grasses reindeer caribou wolves birds insects
Created by: 1036587533018075