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Pathology

First Aid: Pathology

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 steps of extravasation? Rolling: E-selectins on vascular endothelium bind Sialyl-Lewis on leukocyte; Tight binding: ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium bind LFA-1 on leukocyte; Diapedisis; Migration guided by chemotactic signals (cytokines)
What is the difference between grade and stage? Grade is the degree of cellular differentiation based on histologic appearance. Staging is the degree of localization/spread based on site and size of lesion, metastasis, nodal involvement, etc.
This disease is commonly associated with ALL? Down syndrome
These two neoplasms are often associated with tuberous sclerosis? Astrocytoma and cardiac rhabdomyoma
This disease is commonly associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus? Plummer-Vinson syndrome (atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs, anemia; all due to iron deficiency)
These neoplasms are often associated with AIDS? Kaposi's sarcoma and aggressive malignant non-Hodgkin lymphomas
What is the oncogene in CML, gain or loss of function? bcr-abl, gain
What is the oncogene in Burkitt's, gain or loss of function? c-myc, gain
What is the oncogene in Follicular lymphoma, gain or loss of function? bcl-2, gain
What is the oncogene in breast, ovarian, and gastric carcinoma's, gain or loss of function? erb-B2, gain
What is the oncogene in colon carcinoma, gain or loss of function? ras, gain
What is the oncogene in lung tumor, gain or loss of function? L-myc, gain
What is the oncogene in neuroblastoma, gain or loss of function? N-myc, gain
What is the oncogene in MEN II/III, gain or loss of function? ret, gain
What is the impaired gene in Retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma, gain or loss of function? Rb, loss chromosome 13q
What is the impaired gene in breast and ovarian cancer, is it gain or loss of function? BRCA-1,2, loss chromosome 17q,13q
What is the impaired tumor suppressor found in most human cancers? p53
What is the impaired gene in Wilm's tumor, is it gain or loss of function? WT1, loss chromosome 11
On what chromosomes are the NF1 and NF2 tumor suppressor genes? NF1 17q, NF2 22q
What are the only two tumor suppressors located on a short arm of a chromosome? p53 on 17p and p16 on 9p ("p" is the short arm)
What is the tumor marker for colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, and breast carcinomas? carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
What is the tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumors? alpha-fetoprotein
What is the tumor marker for ovarian and malignant epithelial tumors? CA-125
What is the tumor marker for melanoma, neural tumors, and astrocytomas? S-100
What is the tumor marker for metastasis to bone? alkaline phosphatase
What is the tumor marker for neuroblastoma's, gastric, and lung cancer? bombesin
What oncogenic virus is associated with T-cell leukemia? HTLV-1
What oncogenic virus is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma? HBV, HCV
What oncogenic virus is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma? EBV
What oncogenic virus is associated with cervical carcinoma? HPV
What oncogenic virus is associated with kaposi's sarcoma? HHV-8
What carcinogen is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma? Aflatoxins (mycotoxins of aspergillus)
What cancer is associated with vinyl chloride? Liver (angiosarcoma)
What cancer is associated with nitrosamines? esophagus, stomach
What carcinogen is associated with mesothelioma? asbestos
What cancer is associated with arsenic exposure? squamous cell carcinoma
What carcinogen is associated with transitional cell carcinoma? Napthalene (anilene) dyes
What cancer can cause both Cushing's syndrome and SIADH? Small cell lung carcinoma
What cancers can release a PTH-related peptide capable of causing hypercalcemia? Squamous cell lung, renal, and breast carcinoma and also multiple myeloma
What cancers are known to metastasize to the brain? Lung, breast, skin, kidney, GI (Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia!)
Which cancers are known to metastasize to the liver? colon, stomach,, and pancreas
Created by: rahjohnson