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Embryology

First Aid: Embryology

QuestionAnswer
In what week does the bilaminar disk (epiblast:hypoblast form)? Week 2
In what week do we see the Gastrulation, formation of the primitive streak, notochord, and neural plate? Week 3
In what time frame is the fetus most susceptible to teratogens? Weeks 3-8
In what week does the heart begin to beat? Week 4
In what week do the limb buds form? Week 4
From what embryologic layer do the adenohypophysis and lens of eye develop? Surface ectoderm
From what embryologic layer do the neurohypophysis and CNS neurons develop? Neuroectoderm
From what embryologic layer do the ANS and cranial nerves develop? Neural crest
From what embryologic layer does the gut tube epithelium develop? Endoderm
What induces the ectoderm to form neuroectoderm and what is its postnatal derivative? Notochord; develops into nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disk
What embryologic layer forms the connective tissue, muscle,, bone, CV and various other visceral structures? Mesoderm
What are the common mesodermal defects? VACTERL: Vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal defects, and limb defects
What is the leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation in the U.S.? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
What teratogen causes renal damage? ACE inhibitors
What teratogen predisposes to vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma? Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
What teratogen causes congenital goiter or hypothyroidism? Iodide
What teratogen causes limb defects? Thalidomide; sedative and used to treat multiple myeloma
What teratogen is believed to be related to ADHD? tobacco
Teratogenic anticoagulant? Warfarin
What are the 3 major components of the umbilical cord and their functions? Umbilical arteries (2) carry deoxygenated bloodd from fetus to placenta; Umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from placenta to IVC; allantoic duct removes nitrogenous waste
This embryonic structure gives rise to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk? Truncus arteriosus
Forms smooth portions of left and righ ventricle? Bulbus cordis
Forms trabeculated portions of ventricles? Primitive ventricle
Forms trabeculated portions of atria? Primitive atria
Forms left coronary sinus and smooth part of right atrium? Left and right sinus venosus
Forms superior vena cava? right common cardianl vein and right anterior cardinal vein
Which organs are responsible for fetal erythropoiesis? Yolk sac (3-8 wks); Liver(6-30 wks); Spleen (9-28 wks);Bone marrow (28 wks on); Young Liver Synthesizes Blood!
Describe fetal circulation? Umbilical vein -> ductus venosus -> IVC -> foramen ovale -> Aorta -> abdominal aorta -> umbilical arteris off internal iliac; Deoxygenated blood from SVC -> pulmonary artery -> ductus arteriosus -> joins oxygenated blood in descending aorta
This becomes the ligamentum teres hepatis? umbilical vein
This becomes ligamentum arteriosum? ductus arteriosum
This becomes the ligamentum venosum? ductus venosum
This becomes the fossa ovalis? foramen ovale
this becomes the median umbilical ligament? Urachus (allantois)
Part of the allantoic duct between the bladder and umblicus? urachas
Common carotid artery arises from what aortic arch? 3rd
Subclavian arteries arise from this aortic arch? 4thh
Major derivatives of branchial arch 1? Meckel's cartilage (mandible, malleus, incus); muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, pterygoids); CN V2 and V3
Major derivatives of branchial arch 2? Reicherts cartialge (stapes, styloid process); muscles of facial expression; CN VII
Major derivatives of branchial arch 3? Greater horn of hyoid; stylopharyngeus; CN IX
Major derivatives of branchial arches 4? thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids (with 6); most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid; CN X (superior laryngeal branch)
Major derivatives of branchial arches 6? thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids (with 4); all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid; CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)
What nerves control the tongue? (taste, sensation, and motor?) Taste: ant 2/3 is VII, post 1/3 is IX; Sensation: ant 2/3 is V2V3, post 1/3 is IX; Motor: XII
What develops into the external auditory meatus? 1st branchial cleft
What branchial pouches contribute to the parathyroids? 3rd pouch (inferior parathyroids) and 4th pouch (superior parathyroids)
What branchial pouch develops into the thymus? 3rd pouch
What is the result of aberrant 3rd and 4th pouch development? DiGeorge syndrome; thymic aplasia -> t-cell deficiency, and failure of parathyroid development -> hypocalcemia
What is the foramen cecum? Normal remant of thyroglossal duct
What causes cleft lip? falure of fusion of maxillary and medial nasal processes
What causes cleft palate? failure of fusion of lateral palatine processes, nasal septum, and/or median palatine processes
What is an annular pancreas? ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds abnormally encircling duodenum, may cause duodenal narrowing
What are the 3 embryologic kidneys and when do they function? Pronephros (week 4), mesonephros (first trimester), metanephros (permanent)
Which ducts develop into male and female sexual anatomy? Mesonephric (wolffian) duct become masculine; Paramesonephric (mullerian) duct become feminine
What inhbits paramesonephric development and what secretes it? Mullerian inhibiting substance, excreted by the testes
What are the genital homologues developed from the genital tubercle? Glans penis and glans clitoris
What are the genital homologues developed from the urogenital sinus? Men: corpus spongiosum, bulbourethral glands, and prostate gland; Women: vestibular bulbs urethral and paraurethral glands
What are the genital homologues developed from the urogenital folds? ventral shaft of penis and labia minora
Created by: rahjohnson