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Psych E2

GABA Neurotransmitter Regulates anxiety (decrease = anxiety)
Serotonin Neurotransmitter regulates sleep, wakefulness, mood, delusions, hallucinations
Dopamine Neurotransmitter regulates cognition, emotional responses, and motivation
Norepinephrine Controls arousal, attention, mood, affect, anxiety, thinking, planning, and interpreting
Acetylcholine Sleep & wakefulness (a/w Alzheimer)
Typical Antipsychotic Categories Phenothiazine and NonPhenothiazines
Phenothiazine Block NE
Phenothiazine Drugs Aliphatic, Piperazines: Prolixin&Trilafon, Piperidine: Thioridazine (Mellaril)
NonPhenothiazine Block Dopamine
NonPhenothiazine Drugs Butyrophenone: Haloperidol(Haldol), Dibenzoxazepines, Dihydroindolone, Thioxanthene
Typical Antipsychotic EPS Pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystopia, akithisia, tardive dyskinesia, NMS
Acute Dystonia Spasms and upward eye movement
Tardive Dyskinesia Protrusion/rolling of tongue, chewing motion, lip smacking
Pseudoparkinsonism Rigidity, stooped posture, shuffling gait, tremors
Synopsis Faulty release, reuptake, or elimination of neurotransmitters leads to an imbalance and develops mental disorders
Antitypical Antipsychotic Drugs Clozapine (Clozaril), Riperdone (Risperdal), Olanzapine (Zyprexia), Quetiapine (Seroquel), Invega, Ziprasidone (Geodon)
Benzodiazepines Lorazepam (Ativan) and BuSpar
Herbal Antidepressants St. Johns Wort and Gingko Biloba
Antidepressant Categories TCAs, SSRIs, Atypical, MAOIs, SNRI, Heterocyclic
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) Elavil, Toframil, Surmontil,, Sinequin, Desiprmine, Nortriptyline, Protiptyline
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Prozac, Luvox, Zoloft, Paxil, Celexia, Lexapro
Atypical Antidepressants Ascendin, Wellbutrin, Ludiomil, Serzone, Desyrel, Remeron, Effexor
Monamine Oxidase Inhibitors Parnate, Marplan, Nardil
SNRI Selective NE Reuptake Inhibitor
Heterocyclic Affects serotonin, dopamine, NE
Mood Stabilizers Lithium, Anticonvulsants, Atypical Antipsychotics, Benzodiazepines, Calcium Channel Blockers, Antidepressants
Anticonvulsants Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Depakote, Lamictal, Zyprexia, Geodon, Abilify
Alternative Uses for Antidepressants Dysthmia, schizophrenia, eating disorders, anxiety disorders, migraines, chronic pain, and sleep disorders
Serotonin Syndrome Too much serotonin in the CNS
Symptoms of Serotonin Syndrome Muscle twitches, tremor, confusion, disorientation, spasms, and shivering
Symptoms of Serotonin Withdrawal F- flu like symptoms & fatigue I - insomnia N - nausea I - imbalance/dizziness S - sensory disturbances H - hyperarousal (anxiety/agitation)
TCAs Increases serotonin and norepinephrine
MAOIs Increase NE, serotonin, and dopamine
Side Effects of MAOIs Elevated BP
Avoid with MAOIs Tyramine foods (chocolate, coffee, bananas, dairy, cheese, beer, wine, soy)
Pharmacokinetics how body affects a drug
Absorption how drug moved into blood stream from site of administration
Distribution how much drug is moved into various body tissues
Metabolism How drug is altered into active and inactive parts
Elimination how much of drug is removed from body
Bioavailability How much reaches systemic circulation unchanged
Half-Life Time it takes for dose amount of drug in body to decrease by 50%
Steady State Plasma drug concentration remains constant between doses (equilibrium between ingestion and excretion)
Enzyme protein that catalyzes 1 or more biochemical reactions
Agonist Drug that stimulates receptor to open its channel
Antagonist drug that blocks the receptor from opening
Therapeutic Index measure of safety and toxicity of a drug
Therapeutic Effect Desired interaction
Synergistic Effect drug interaction whose effects are greater than if given alone
Augmentation Addition of another class of meds to supplement effectiveness of primary med
Pharmacodynamics Effects of drug on body
Pyschopharmacogenetics deals with genetic and environmental factors that control or influence psychotropic drug metabolizing systems
Antipsychotics Block dopamine
Atypical Antipsychotics Block dopamine and serotonin
Antidepressants Increase NE and Serotonin
Cholinesterase (ChE) Inhibitors Increases acetylcholine
Benzodiazepines Enhance GABA effects
Traditional/Typical Antipsychotic Target + Symptoms (Hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, disordered thinking)
Atypical Antipsychotics Target + and - Symptoms (blunt affect, decreased social interaction, lack of motivation)
Phenothiazine Nursing Care Photosensitivity: sunscreen/clothing Constipation: Increase fiber and exercise Dry Mouth: Ice or sugar free candy
Akathisia Can't remain still (rule out anxiety or agitation)
Anticholinergics Artane and Benztropine (Cogentin)
Clozapine (Clozaril) Warnings Agranulocytosis, seizures, myocarditis, cv &respiratory effects, and increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia
AIMS Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (detects presence of tardive dyskinesia)
Lithium Naturally occurring salt, first line tx for acute mania clients
Lithium reduces what symptoms Elation, grandiosity, expansiveness, flight of ideas, irritability, manipulativeness, anxiety
Lithium Side Effects Weight gain, tremors, acne, hypothyroidism, n&v, diarrhea, cramps
Lithium Mechanism of Action Increase salt intake = decrease lithium (low levels) Decrease salt intake = increase lithium (toxicity)
Bipolar Drugs Valporic Acid (Depakene), Valproate (Depacon), Depakote
Anticonvulsant Side Effects Dizziness, double vision, headache, Stevens Johnson Syndrom, Agranulocytosis
Why benzodiazepines given for bipolar Treats agitation, insomnia, and anxiety
Calcium Channel Blocker Drugs Calan, Isoptin, Adalat, Procardia, Nimotop
Calcium Channel Blockers Use Bipolar clients with HTN, arrhythmias, pregnancy
Side Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers Dizziness, headache, nausea, arrhythmias, hepatotoxicity, and syncope
Short Term Acute Mania Tx Zyprexa. Abilify, Geoden (Atypical Antipsychotics)
Cholinesterase Inhibitor Drugs Razadyne, Aricept, Exelon, Cognex
Created by: TedMed