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21. Monera

Leaving cert Biology

QuestionAnswer
What is the study of microorganisms called Microbiology
A more common name for the kingdom Monera is ? Bacteria
What type of habitat do bacteria live in Aquatic and terrestrial
True or False, bacteria can be found in in extreme conditions like , high temperatures, high pressure and low pH True
Bacteria are one celled organisms, what term is given to this Unicellular
True or False, all bacteria have a cell membrane and a cell wall True
Sometime infoldings are present on the cell membrane to increase respiration, what are these called Mesosomes
What is the cell wall made of Sugar and Proteins
What is the function of the cell wall Gives strength and stops it from bursting
For further protection, bacteria MAY have a semi-solid or slime layer present on the outside, what is this called Capsule
Does a bacterial cell have a membrane around its nucleus No
Some bacteria also have a DNA loop that are responsible for bacterial resistance to antibiotics, what are they called Plasmids
What allows some bacteria to move Flagella
What are the three types of bacteria Rod, Cocci and Spiral
What do you call the method of reproduction in bacteria Binary Fission
What is the first thing that happens in binary fission DNA replicates
After DNA replicates, what happens Cell elongates
After cell elongates, what happens Cell divides
How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics The evolve very fast and mutations are carried through to daughter cells
How can some bacteria survive harsh conditions By forming endospores
What happens to the endospore when conditions become favourable again Tough wall absorbs water and breaks down and then binary fission occurs
True or False. Endospores can withstand lack of food and water, high temperatures and most poisons True
What is the term used to describe how an organism makes its own food Autotrophic
What is the term used to describe how an organism makes its own food by using sunlight Photosynthetic
What is the term used to describe how an organism makes its own food by using energy from reactions Chemosynthetic
What is the term used to describe how an organism takes in food made by other organisms Heterotrophic
What is the term used to describe an organism that takes in food from dead organic matter Saprophyte
What is the term used to describe an organism that takes in food from a live host Parasite
What do you call the factors that slow down bacterial growth Limiting factors
What is the optimum temperature of most bacteria 20 -30 C
What happens to bacteria if temperature is too high They become denatured
What happens to bacteria if temperature is too low Slows down bacterial growth
Name the bacteria that require oxygen for respiration Aerobic bacteria
Name the bacteria that do not require oxygen for respiration Anaerobic bacteria
Name the type of bacteria that can respire with or without oxygen Facultative anaerobes
Name the type of bacteria that can only respire on the absence of oxygen Obligate anaerobes
What is the optimum pH for most bacteria 7
What happens if a bacteria is placed in an unsuitable pH Enzymes become denatured
Name the process by which bacteria gain or lose water Osmosis
If external solution has a higher solute concentration than bacterial cytoplasm, what happens to bacteria Water moves out and bacteria becomes dehydrated
If external solution has a lower solute concentration than bacterial cytoplasm, what happens to bacteria Water enters bacteria but wall prevents bursting
What happens most bacteria in high pressures Bacterial wall bursts
Two economic benefits of bacteria Makes yoghurt and cheese and products such as insulin
Two economic disadvantages of bacteria Causes disease and food decay
What do you call bacteria that cause disease Pathogen
What do you call compounds produced by microorganisms that stop the growth of, or kill, other microorganisms without damaging human tissue Antibiotics
What do you call bacteria not affected by antibiotics Antibiotic resistant bacteria
What do you call bacterial strains that are resistant to almost all known antibiotics Multi-resistant bacteria
What do you call the first phase of bacterial growth on a growth curve Lag phase
What happens in the lag phase Bacteria adapt to their new environment
What do you call the phase where there is rapid bacterial growth Log phase
What do you call the phase where there is no increase in bacterial numbers Stationary phase
Why does bacterial growth slow down Lack of food, space, moisture, oxygen
What do you call the phase where growth slows down Decline phase
What do you call the phase where bacterial growth stops Death phase
Some bacteria do not enter the death phase, instead they enter the survival phase, why is this They form endospores
What is bioprocessing The production of useful products using bacteria
What do you call the growth of microorganisms in a liquid medium Fermentation
What are the two main methods of bacterial fermentation Batch culture and Continuous flow culture
What do you call a small amount of organism used to start fermentation Inoculum
What is batch culture A fixed amount of nutrient is added to the inoculum in a bioreactor
In batch culture what phase do bacteria go through Lag, log and stationary
After the stationary phase what happens in batch culture Process is stopped and product formed
In continuous flow culture, what is continuously added to the bioreactor Nutrients
Why is it called continuous flow Bacteria, culture medium and product are continuously removed
At what stage is bacterial growth maintained Log phase
Which of the two fermentation processes is most commonly used Batch culture
Created by: gcu biology