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Terms

Psych E2

TermDefinition
Agitation Inability to sit still & heightened emotions/tension
Algoia Poverty of Speech; reduced fluency/productivity of thought and speech
Hypofrontality Reduced cerebral blood flow & glucose metabolism in prefrontal cortex
Word Salad Shift after 1 or 2 words
Non-Bizarre Delusions C/B adherence to possible situations that could appear in real life (plausible)
Verbigeration Purposeless repetition of words/phrases
Tangentiality Topic changes to entirely different topic w/n logical progression but causes permanent detour from original focus
Stifled Language Overly and inappropriately formal language
Referential Thinking Belief neutral stimuli has special meaning to the individual (ex: TV commentator speaking directly to individual)
Prodromal Early symptom indicating development of disease/syndrome
Pressured Speech Speaking as if words are forced out
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Life-threatening condition that can develop in reaction to antipsychotic meds (muscle rigidity, HTN, tachycardia, incontinence, leukocytosis)
Neologisms Words made up that have no common meaning and are not recognized
Metonymic Speech Use of words with similar meanings interchangeably
Loose Associations/Flight of Ideas Shift after 1 or 2 phrases
Illusions Create oversensitivity to colors, shapes, background activities when person misperceives external environment
Hypervigilance Sustained attention to external stimuli as if expecting something important/frightening to happen
Flight of Ideas Repeated and rapid changes in topic
Echopraxia Involuntary imitation of another person's movements & gestures
Echolalia Parrot-like and inappropriate repetition of another person's words
Disorganized Symptoms Symptoms of schizophrenia that make it difficult for person to understand and respond to ordinary sights and sights
Delusions Fixed false beliefs that can't be changes by reason
Concrete Thinking Lack of abstraction in thinking in which ppl are unable to understand punch lines, metaphors, and analogies
Clang Association Repetition of words/phrases similar in sound but no other way (ex: right-light-sight)
Catatonic Excitement Hyperactivity C/B purposeless activity & abnormal movements (ex: grimacing and posturing)
Avolition W/drawal & inability to initiate/persist in goal-directed activity
Autistic Thinking Thinking restricted to literal and immediate; individual has private rules of logic & reasoning that make no sense to others
Apathy Diminished interest and desire
Anhedonia Inability to express pleasure
Ambivalence Presence/Expression of two opposing feelings - leads to inaction
Flat Affect Emotional expression Absent
Blunt Affect Expression greatly diminished
Affective Lability Abrupt, dramatic, unprovoked changes
Dysarthria Difficulty articulating words
Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing
Bizarre Delusions Impossible, illogical, and not derived from ordinary life experiences
Stereotypy Idiosyncratic, repetitive, purposeless movements
Waxy Flexibility Posture held in odd or unusual fixed positions for extended periods
Circumstantiality Extremely detailed and lengthy discourse about a subject
Paranoia Suspiciousness and guardedness that are unrealistic and often accompanied by grandiosity
Aggression Behaviors or attitudes that reflect rage, hostility, and the potential for physical or verbal destructiveness
Regressed Behavior Behaving in a manner of a less mature stage of life
Depression Overwhelming sadness, loss of interest, guilt, disturbed sleep and appetite, low Energy
Unipolar Single abnormal mood state (ex: depression)
Mood Episode Severe mood changes that lasts @least 2 weeks that causes clinically significant distress/impairment
Major Depressive Episodes Lasts @least 2 weeks and includes 4 symptoms
Dysthymic Disorder Milder but more chronic form that lasts @least 2 years in adults and includes 3 symptoms
Psychosis A state in which an individual experiences + symptoms
Delusional Disorder Psychotic disorder C/B nonbizarre, logical, and stable delusions that occur in the absence of other psychiatric disordres
Nonbizarre Delusions Ex: Being followed, poisoned, infected, loved at a distance, or deceived by lover/spouse
Erotomanic Delusions C/B belief that the patient is loved intensely by "loved object" who is usually unattainable
Gradiose Delusions Convinced have great, unrecognized talent/discovery; less common is special relationship with prominent person or is a prominent person
Jealous Delusions Unfatihfulness belief that arises without cause and based on incorrect "evidence" (ex: spots on sheets)
Somatic Delusions Involves bodily functions/sensations and belief they have ailments and seek medical care excessively
Mixed/Unspecified Delusions 1 or more types of delusions; delusions where person is replaced by imposter
Persecutory Delusions Patient's belief being conspired against, cheated/spied on, followed poisoned, drugged, harassed
Persecutory Delusions May repeatedly appeal to courts and other agencies; often angry, violent, and resentful
Schizophreniform Disorder Identical to schizophrenia w/ symptoms @least 1 month duration but less than 6 months
Brief Psychotic Disorder @least 1 day but less than 1 month, sudden onset and at least one + symptom
Shared Psychotic Disorder Person believes and shares part or all of the inducer's delusional beliefs
Thymoleptic Mood-stabilizing
Schizoaffective Disorder (SAD) C/B periods of intense symptoms alternating with quiet periods during which psychosocial functioning is adequate
Anergia Extremely Tired (ex: too tired to wipe snot from nose)
Delirium Acute cognitive impairments that can be caused by medical condition, substance abuse, or multiple etiologies
Hyperkinetic Delirium Behaviors most commonly recognized as delirium (psychomotor hyperactivity, excitability, hallucinations)
Hypokinetic Delirium Lethargy, sleepiness, and apathy & a decrease in psychomotor activity
Mixed Variant Delirium Behavior that fluctuates between hyperactive and hypoactive
Cortical Dementia Results from a disease process that globally afflict cortex (Alzheimer's is most common)
Subcortical Dementia Caused by dysfunction/deterioration of deep gray/white matter structures in brain and brain stem.
Subcortical Dementia Tends to disrupt arousal, attention, and motivation
Alzheimer Dementia Degenerative, progressive neuropsychiatric disorder that results in cognitive impairment, emotional and behavioral changes, physical and functional decline, and ultimately death
Aphasia Alterations in language ability
Apraxia Impaired ability to execute motor activities despite intact motor functioning
Agnosia Failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function
Disturbance of Executive Functioning Inability to think abstractly, plain, initiate, sequence, monitor, and stop complex behavior
Beta-Amyloid Plaques Destroy cholinergic neurons; interferes with process of storing memories by interrupting synaptic connections
Neurofibrillatory Tangles Abnormally twisted protein threads inside cells that disintegrates microtubules, collapses neuron's transport systems, and results in cell death
Acetylcholine (ACh) A/W cognitive functioning (cell loss in nucleus leads to deficits in this chemical)
Catastrophic Reactions Overreactions or extreme anxiety to everyday situations
Cognitive Reserve Brain's ability to operate effectively even when there is disruptions in functioning
Vascular Dementia Step-wise progressive dementia
Amnestic Disorder Impairment in memory that is caused by direct physiologic effects of general medical condition or effects of substance
Confabulation Filling gaps in memory with imaginary events (different from lying)
Expansive Mood C/B lack of restraint in expressing one's feelings and frequently overvaluing one's own importance
Bipolar II Has less dramatic symptoms & C/B hypomania
Bipolar I @least 1 manic episode or mixed episode&depressive episode
Mania C/B abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood
Hypomania Mild form of mania
Hyomanic Episode Less intense manic episode with little impairment in social/occupational functioning and intact judgment
Mixed Episode When mania and depression occur @ same time, which leads to anxiety, agitation, and irritability
Manic Episode Distinct period during which there is an abnormally & persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood
Irritable Mood Being easily annoyed and provoked to anger, particularly when wishes are challenged
Rapid Cycle Occurrence of 4 or more episodes that meet criteria for manic, mixed, hypomanic, or depressive episode during the previous 12 months
Disinhibition Equilibrium is compensation for external disturbance
Hypersexuality Inappropriate and socially unacceptable sexual behavior
Impaired Consciousness Less environmental awareness and loss of ability to focus attention
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Transitional state between normal cognition and Alzheimer's disease
Acknowledgement Recognizing the client’s opinions and statements without imposing your own values and judgment
Clarifying The process of making sure you have understood the meaning of what was said
Confrontation Calling attention to inconsistent behavior, information shared or not shared
Focusing Assisting the client to explore a specific topic which may include sharing perceptions and theme identification
Reflecting/Restating Paraphrasing or repeating what the client has said (Be careful not to overuse; client will feel as though you are not listening)
Vascular Dementia Caused by lack of brain to blood, "small strokes"
Parkinson's Disease Disorder to the CNS that affects movement
Huntington's Disease An inherited condition in which nerve cells in the brain break down over time.
Pick's Disease a rare form of progressive dementia, typically occurring in late middle age and often familial, involving localized atrophy of the brain (distinguished from AD on autopsy)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease mad cow disease
Substance-Induced Persisting Dementia most related to chronic alcohol abuse
Created by: TedMed