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BIO 208 Exam #1

Biology natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy
Levels of Biological Organization 1. Biosphere 2. Ecosystems 3. Communities 4. Populations 5. Organisms 6. Organs and Organ Systems 7. Tissues 8. Cells 9. Organelles 10. Molecules
Emergent Property A novel property that unpredictably comes from a combination of two simpler constituents Ex) Salt composed from sodium and chlorine
Cell Theory A cell is the smallest and simplest unit that displays all properties of life
Prokaryotic Cells small and simple. DNA is not in nuclei
Eukaryotic Cells large and complex. DNA is in nuclei
Cell Division Produces two daughter cells that are genetically identical
Differentiation Produces cells with different properties and capabilities
Central Dogma DNA undergoes Replication and Transcription ---> RNA undergoes Translation ---> Protein
What is life on Earth marked by? Diversity and Unity
Common features of ALL cells DNA is the genetic material Conserved genetic code Ribosomes synthesize proteins Conserved enzymatic pathways (e.g., glycolysis) ATP is the universal “energy currency”
Any scientific theory has the potential to be... disproved
Extant Currently living
Homology A trait is similar in extant organisms because it also was present in the common ancestor of these organisms Ex) Forelimbs of mammals
Analogy traits similar due to separate evolution in response to similar environmental challenges Ex) Flagella
Mechanism Environment cannot support all individuals. Individuals best fit to survive pass on their traits
Scientific Method 1. Observation 2. Questions 3.Hypotheses 4. Predictions 5. Theory
Experiments must: 1. Include controls 2. Test only one or a few variables 3. Give reproducible results
Matter has mass; takes up space
Element substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions
Atom the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
Compound two or more different elements in a fixed ratio (e.g., NaCl and CO2)
Molecule : elements joined by covalent bonds; 1) fixed ratios and 2) specific bonding patterns
Percentage of Elements that are essential to life 20-25%
What elements make up 96% of living matter Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
Most of the 4% that makes up the rest of living matter is? Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, and Sulfur
Trace Elements Elements required by an organism only in minute quantities
Atomic Number Number of protons in the nucleus
Atomic Mass Number of protons and neutrons
Isotope atoms that have the same # of P but different # of N
Half-Life How long it takes for an element's mass to decay by half
Biological Uses of Isotopes Carbon Dating, Tracers, Cell Killing
Energy The ability to do work
Valence Electron Shell Outermost shell that holds electrons
Number of Electrons that can be held in: n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 2, 8, 18, 32
3 Rules of Atomic Stability Octet Rule, Electroneutrality, e- are paired
Which group of elements are the only ones to satisfy all 3 Stability rules? Noble Gases
Covalent Bonds 2 atoms SHARE one or more pairs of electrons
Ions Charged atoms
Ionic Bonds Opposite charges attract each other
Hydrogen Bonds Occurs BETWEEN partially positive and partially negative atoms
Van der Waals Interactions Attractions between molecules that are close together as a result of their charges
Chemical Equilibrium When the rate of reaction is the same forward as it is in reverse
Polar Covalent Bonds Occur WITHIN some molecules
Cohesion Water sticks to itself
Adhesion Water is attracted to other polar molecules
Specific Heat The heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius
1000 calories is how many dietetic Calories? 1
Ice is more dense than water. (True/False) False
Solvent Water
Solutes Dissolved materials
Solution Water plus solutes
Polar Molecules Form H-Bonds with water; Hydrophilic
Non-Polar Molecules Hydrophobic
Molecular Weight Sum of atmoic masses
Avogadro's Number 6.02x10^23. Is equivalent to 1 mole of atoms
Molarity Moles/Liter
Acid Proton Donor
Base Proton Acceptor
pH -log of the concentration of hydrogen ions
pH of pure water 7
pH less than 7 acid
pH more than 7 base
When pH is 7, conentration of hydrogen ions? Hydroxide ions? 10^-7
Buffer Resists changes to the pH when acids or bases are introduced
Vitalism The concept that organic matter possesses a special force or vital force inherent to things living
Why do atoms form covalent bonds? To complete their valence shell
Hydrocarbons Rich in carbons and hydrogens; non-polar
Isomers Molecules that have the same empirical formula, but different arrangements of atoms
3 types of isomers Structural, Cis-Trans, Enantiomers
Functional Groups Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydral, and Phosphate
Hydroxyl (Compound Name, Polar or Non-Polar) Alcohol, Polar
Carbonyl (Compound Name, Polar or Non-Polar) Ketones/Aldeyde, Polar
Carboxyl (Compound Name, Polar or Non-Polar) Carboxylic acid/Organic Acid, Polar
Amines (Compound Name, Polar or Non-Polar) Amine, Polar
Sulfydryl (Compound Name, Polar or Non-Polar) Thiols/ Mercaptans/Sulfur Alcohols, Polar
Phosphates (Compound Name, Polar or Non-Polar) Organic Phosphates, Polar
Methyl (Compound Name) Methylated Compound
Polymers Long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
What are Polymers made up of? Monomers
Functions of Polymers Storage, Structure, Information
How are monomers formed to form polymers? Deydration synthesis or Condensation
How are polymers broken down? Hydrolysis
Monosaccharides (General Formula) (CH2O)n
Functions of Monosaccharides Energy Storage, Structure, Information
What covalently join monosaccharides to make disaccharides? Glycosidic Linkages
Starch Contains only glucose and can be branched or unbranched
Glycogen Contains only glucose
Cellulose Major structural component of plant cell walls
3 types of Lipids Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Steroids
Ester Linkage A fatty acid is joined by its carboxyl group to glycerol
Fat Molecule 3 fatty acids attached to one glycerol by ester linkages
Enzymatic Proteins Function Selective acceleration of chemical reactions
Defensive Proteins Function Protection against disease
Storage Proteins Function Storage of amino acids
Transport Proteins Function Transport of substances
Hormonal Proteins Function Coordination of an organism activities
Receptor Proteins Function Response of cell to chemical stimuli
Contractile and Motor Proteins Function Movement
Structural Proteins Support
Amino acids are made up of? Amino group, alpha carbon, R group, and a carboxyl group
3 groups of amino acids Hydrophobic R-groups, Polar Uncharged R-groups, Charged R-groups, and
What is the repeating pattern of the peptide backbone? NCC-NCC-NCC
What is a protein's function dependent on? Its 3D structure
4 structures of proteins Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary
Primary Structure (# of possible sequences) It is the order oor sequence of AA's; 20^n
Secondary Structure (2 types) 1. alpha helix 2. beta pleated sheet
Tertiary Structure Influenced by? Primary Structure, Secondary Structure, and interactions between R groups
4 Interactions between R-groups H-Bonds, Hydrophobic Interactions, Ionic Bonds, Disulfide Bridges
When is a protein functional? When it is in its native conformation
What does native conformation require? Normal pH, temperature, and salt concentration
What happens when you change the conditions for a protein? It denatures the protein
How do you restore a proteins' function and structure? By restoring the normal conditions (doesn't always work)
What helps fold proteins? Chaperonins
Parts of Chaperonins Cap and the Hollow Cylinder
Normal cellular proteins that can fold into an abnormal configuration that causes other normal proteins to refold into the bad configuration Prions
What do nucleotides contain? 1. A phosphate group 2. Pentose sugar 3. Nitrogenous base
Nitrogenous Bases Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil, Adenine, and Guanine
Pyrimidines Cytosine, Thymine (in DNA), and Uracil (in RNA)
Purines Adenine and Guanine
Polarity of Nucleotides run from... 5'-phosphate end to the 3'-hydroxyl end
DNA's structure name Double Helix
In the DNA structure, what faces outward and what faces inward? Inward: Nitrogenous Bases Outward: Sugar-Phosphate backbones
Which nitrogenous bases have the strongest bonds? Why? C-G because they have 3 hydrogen bonds
How many H bonds do A-T have? 2
Are the 2 DNA strands parallel or antiparallel? Antiparellel
What does Uracil replace in RNA? Thymine
Special types of RNA? mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
Resolution of the human eye? 100 micrometers
Resolution of the light microscope? 0.2 micrometers
Resolution of the electron microscope? 0.002 micrometers
kilo- 10^3
hecto- 10^2
deka- 10^1
deci- 10^-1
centi- 10^-2
milli- 10^-3
micro- 10^-6
nano- 10^-9
Who invented the microscope and when? Robert Hooke in 1590
Microscope Parameters Magnification, resolution, and contrast
Types of Light Microscopy Brightfield, Phase-contrast, Flourescence, Deconvolution, Confocal, Super-Resolution
Types of Electron Microscopy Scanning and Transmission
What does the Scanning EM show? Cell structures
What does the Transmission EM show? Details of internal structures
LM vs. EM Illumination LM: uses light; EM: uses electron beam in vacuum
LM vs. EM Lenses LM: glass; EM: electromagnets
LM vs. EM Specimen Prep LM: living or dead; EM: dead
LM vs. EM Image capture Both are now digital
Cell Fractionation Form of centrifuging that yields "fractions" enriched in organelles or structures depending on the speed
Cell Fractionation: P1 yields nuclei and cell debris
Cell Fractionation: P20 yields mitochondria, chloroplasts, and lysosomes
Cell Fractionation: P80 yields microsomal membrane (Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Plasma Membrane)
Cell Fractionation: P150 yields ribosomes
Cell Fractionation: S150 yields cytosol, proteins, amino acids, ions, etc.
Do small cells have a low or high surface area to volume ratio? High
Structure of Plasma Membrane Hydrophilic outside region --> Hydrophobic middle region --> Hydrophilic inner region
Prokaryotic Cells Major Components Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, DNA, Ribosomes, Cell Wall, Flagella, Pili and capsule, usually NO organelles
Eukaryotic Cells: Plants and Animals Components Nucleus, Ribosomes, PM, ER, GA, Mitochondrion
Eukaryotic Cells: Animals only Lysosome, Flagellum, Centriole
Eukaryotic Cells: Plants only Chloroplast, Cell wall, Central vacuole, Plasmodesmata
Structures inside the Nucleus Chromatin, Nuclear Envelope, Nucleolus
Ribosomes main function Protein synthesis
Endomembrane System 1. Ribosomes arrociate with RER and NE and proteins are made 2. Proteins are transported to GA in vesicles 3. Proteins are processed in GA and then transported to their proper destinations in vesicles
Golgi Apparatus Function Takes in proteins where they are then 1. sorted 2. packaged into vessicles 3. delivered to other parts of the cell
Lysosome Functions 1. Degrade food ingested by phagocytosis 2. Breakdown and recycle a cell's own organelles and macromolecules via Autophagy
Central Vacuole Functions 1. Stores water 2. Stores ions 3. Stores proteins 4. Contains hydrolytic enzymes
Created by: gaudiop