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Maintaining a balanc

Maintaining a balance terminology p2

nitrogeneous wastes Waste products from metabolic activities involving nitrogen-containing compounds (eg. proteins, amino acids)
optimum conditions at which enzymes work best
Trachaeophyta vascular plants
translocation movement of products of photosynthesis in the phloem of plants
transpiration evaporation of water from the leaf surfaces of plants
transpiration stream movement of water in the xylem tissue
urea breakdown (deamination) of excess amino acids; diluted by water and and excreted and urine
uric acid main nitrogenous waste product of insects reptiles and birds; largely insoluble and excreted as a paste with little water
urine a waste product containing 2% urea
vascular bundle a group of phloem, xylem, and cambium tissue in a stem
vascular plants plants which have conducting vessels, xylem and phloem, including the plants ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms, which belong to phylum Trachaeophyta
vasodilation increase in the diameter of blood vessels to increase blood flow
vasoconstriction decrease in the diameter of blood vessels to decrease blood flow
vein blood vessel which returns blood to the heart
xylem tissue which transports water and minerals upwards from roots to leaves in ferns, cone-bearing and flowering plants (Trachaeophyta)
plasma Liquid part of the blood, making up around 55% in humans, in which materials are dissolved (eg. carbon dioxide, sugars, amino acids) and formed blood elements are carried (red cells, white cells and platelets)
platelets fragments of cells found in the blood which are involved in the clotting process
proximal tubule convoluted tubule between the loop of Henle and Bowman's capsule.
Gymnosperms Cone-bearing plants
Haemoglobin A complex protein molecule found in red blood cells which transports oxygen
Herbaceous Characteristic of a soft plant; having no woody tissue
Homeostasis The tendency in an organism towards maintenance of physiological stability
Homeothermy Maintenance of a stable body temperature independence of changes in environmental temperature
Hypothalamus Area in the brain which acts to integrate the endocrine and nervous systems in homeostatic control of many body functions (e.g temperature regulation)
Isotonic Having equal osmotic pressures
organ functional and structural unit of most multicellular organisms; consisting of at least two types of tissues eg. in plants - roots, stems, leavos; in animals - heart, liver, kidney
organelle any part of the cell which has a specific functional role; in eukaryotic cells, organelles are normally bound by a membrane
osmosis the movement of water from where it is in high concentration to where it is in low concentration through a selectively permeable membrane
osmoregulation the control of water and salt levels
phloem tissue which transports products of photosynthesis (translocation) in ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms
pituitary small structure in the brain which secretes hormones, including ones which control the functions of other endocrine glands (e.g. thyroid gland)
Kidney Organ involved in excretion and osmoregulation
Lignin Material which strengthens and keeps xylem vessels open; the major component of wood
Lymphatic System System of thin-walled vessels and groups of tissue (lymph nodes) which drain fluids from around cells back to the bloodstream (fluid called lymph); the system also involved in the immune response and with transport of breakdown products of fat digestions
Malphigian tubules Excretory organ found in insects
Metabolic pathways Series of chemical reactions, each of which is governed by an enzyme. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are metabolic pathways.
Metabolism All biochemical reactions occurring in the cells of the body; heat is produced as a by-product of metabolism
Nephron Microscopic tubules which make up the functional units of the mammalian kidmey
Nervous system System of nerves and nerve centres in an animal
pulse rate measure of the heart (beats per minute) taken by palpating a position where an artery crosses the bone.
rate of reaction the speed at which a reaction proceeds. It is normally measured as the amount of substate(s) used up or the amount of product(s) formed ina a given amount of time .
renal artery the artery brining blood to the kidney
receptor sensory cell responding to some internal or external environmental variable (eg. cells in the brain responding to CO2 level or temperature of the blood)
Respiratory surface A special surface for gaseous exchange
Response Change in an organism produced by a change in its internal or external environment
Stimulus An environmental factor (inside or outside the body) which is detected by a receptor (e.g. CO2 levels in the blood, temperature of the blood)
Salt gland Structure found in marine birds and turtles which permits excretion of excess salts
renal vein the vein taking blood from the kidney
renin an enzyme found in the stomachs of mammals (especially young), which makes milk go solid (coagulate). It is found in the junket tablets used to make a dessert out of milk and flavouring (sort of yoghurt dessert)
Created by: MCEBiology



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