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Chapter 1

The World of Biology, Themes of Biology, and The Study of Biology

Biology The study of life.
Organization The high degree of order within an organisms internal and external parts and in its with the living world.
Cell The smallest unit that can perform all life's processes.
Unicellular Organisms, such as bacteria, that are made up of one cell.
Multicellular Organisms, such as humans or trees, that are made up of many cells.
Organs Structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system.
Tissues Groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function.
Organelles Tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive.
Biological Molecules The chemical compounds in organelles that provide physical structure and bring about movement, energy use, and other cellular functions.
Homeostasis The maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing.
Metabolism The sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.
Cell Division The formation of two new cells from an existing cell.
Development The process by which an organism becomes a mature adult.
Reproduction When an organism produces new organisms like themselves.
Gene A short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism.
Domain Three major subdivisions of all organisms (domain bacteria, domain archaea, and domain eukarya).
Kingdoms The six major categories of all organisms (bacteria, archaea, protists, plants, fungi, and animals).
Ecology A branch of Biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and the environment.
Ecosystems Communities of living species and their physical environments.
Natural Selection When organisms have certain favorable traits that are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits.
Adaptations Traits that improve an individual's ability to survive and reproduce.
Scientific Method A series of steps that helps solve questions of nature.
Obeservation The act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question.
Hypothesis An educated guess.
Prediction A statement that forecasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis were to be true.
Experiment A step used to test a hypothesis and its predictions.
Control Group A group that provides a normal standard for against which a scientist can compare the results to an experimental group.
Experimental Group Almost the exact same thing as the control group besides the fact that it contains the independent variable.
Independent variable. The only that changes in an experiment.
Dependent Variable The responding variable or the variable that is affected by the independent variable.
Theory A hypothesis that has been proven to be true many times by many scientists.
Peer Review When scientists who are experts receive a paper about their field and annoymously critique and read it.
Created by: 56291