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Bone Tissue & Joints

What are the functions of the skeletal system? Protect, Support,Movements,Mineral & Triglyceride Storage, Blood Cell Formation
Epiphysis Expanded ends of long bone . exterior is compact bone and interior is spongy bone. the joint surface is covered with hyaline cartilage. The epiphyseal line separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis.
Diaphysis Tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
Metaphyses Region where diaphysis joins epiphysis in mature bone . epiphyseal plate allows the diaphysis of a bone to grow in length but not in width in a growing bone
Articular Cartilage Hyaline cartilage reduces friction and absorbs shock at freely moveable joint. Lacks a perichondrium.
Yellow Marrow Contained in Medullary cavity
Red Bone Marrow Contained in spongy bone
The region of a long bone where the epiphysis and diaphysis join is called the ____. metaphyses
What are the two layers of the periosteum? Outer fibrous layer & inner osteogenic layer
What are the functions of the periosteum ? Protect a bone assist in fracture repair nourish bone tissue serve as attachment point for ligaments and tendons
What does the outer fibrous layer contain ? Dense irregular connective tissue
What does the inner osteogenic layer contain? Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
Does the periosteum cover articular cartilage ? no
What are the characteristics and functions of osteocytes? derive from osteoblasts ; mature bone cells , maintain bone tissue.
What are the characteristics and functions of osteoblasts ? bone building cells ; form bone matrix
What are the characteristics and functions of osteoclasts ? derive from monocytes. Resorption & destruction of bone matrix
A structural unit of compact bone is an osteon
The central canal of an osteon contains nerves , blood vessels & lymphatic vessels
What is the structure of a central canal ? Runs longitudinally through the bone contains haversion canal. Blood vessels and nerves & lymphatic vessels
What is the structure of inner circumferential Lamellae? Encircle the medullary cavity
What is the structure of concentric Lamellae? around the canals
What is the structure of interstitial Lamellae ? area between osteons
What is the structure of perforating canal? place where blood vessels , lypmphatic vessels and nerves penetrate the compact bone
What is the structure of canaliculi ? filled with extracellular fluiid , fingerlike processes of ostecytes.
What is the structure of lacunae ? between the lamellae.
What is a characteristic of spongy bone tissue but not of compact bone tissue? spongy bone has red bone marrow and trabeculae
What is the intramembranous ossification ? when the bone forms directly w/mesenchyme arranged in sheet like layers.
What bones does a intramembranous ossification produce? flat bones
What is endochondral ossification ? when bone is formed within hyaline cartilage and develops mesenchyme .
What are the major steps in endochondral ossification ? Development Of Cartilage Model Growth Of Cartilage Model Development Of Primary Ossification Development Of Medullary Cavity Development Of Secondry Ossification Formation Of Articular Cartilage & Epiphyseal Plate
What does the presence of an epiphyseal line indicate ? epiphyseal growth has ended
Normal bone growth and replacement on the presence of ..... Several Minerals , Several Vitamens ,
What is a colles fracture ? frature of the distal end of radius; occurs in children & in winter
What is a Potts fracture ? fracture of the distal end of fibula
What is a impacted fracture? one end of fractured bone is forcefully driven into the interior of the other
What is a greenstick fracture? incomplete fracture where one side of the bone breaks and the other side bends ; occurs only in children
What is a comminuted fracture? bone fragements into three or more pieces ; common in elderly
What is a open fracture? Broken ends of bones were true to the skin muscle is open and there's more chance of infection
What is a closed fracture? Fracture that does not break the skin
What is the struture of outer circumferential lamellae? beneath the periosteum
What type of joint contains a joint cavity ? Synovial
Which type of joint has the most movement ? Diarthrosis
What are the dense irregular or regular connetive tissue structures that bind one bone to another bone ?
What structures are the most responsible for holding bones together at a synovial joint ? Ligaments
What secretes the synovial fluid? Synovial Fluid
What are the functions of the synovial fluid ? Lubrication , Supply nutrients and remove wastes for cartilages, Phagocytic cells remove microbes and debris.
Can ligaments be extracapsular or intracapsular ? Both
Gliding Movement One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface
Flexion Bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint
Extension reverse flexion ; joint angle is increased
Dorsiflexion & Plantar Flexion up and down movement of the foot
Abduction movement away from the midline
Adduction movement toward the midline
Circumduction movement describes a cone in space
Rotation turning of the bone around its own long axis . between two first vertebrae
Supination inversion
Pronation eversion
Protraction elevation
Retraction depression
Suture Synarthrosis. Frontal suture
Syndesmosis Amphiarthrosis. Distal tibiofibular
Interosseous Membrane Amphiarthrosis. Between tibia and fibula
Synchondrosis Synarthrosis. Epiphyseal plate
Symphysis Amphiarthrosis . Intervertebral joints, pubic synthesis .
Planar Diarthrosis . Biaxial. Side to side gliding . Intercarpal, intertarsal, sterno coastal.
Hinge Monoaxial, flexion extension. Elbow and knee, interphalangeal
Pivot Monoaxial, rotation. Atlantoaxial
Condyloid Biaxial, flexion extension, abduction and adduction,. Radiocarpal, metacarpophalangeal ( 2nd to 5th )
Saddle Triaxial, flexion extension, abduction adduction, rotation. Between trapezium and 1st metacarpal .
Ball & Socket Tritiaxial, flexion extension, abduction adduction, circumduction, rotation. Shoulder and hip joints .
Synarthrosis Immovable joint
Amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joint
Diarthrosis Freely movable joint. All diarthrosis are synovial joints
Fibrous Bones held together by fibrous connective tissue . No synovial cavity
Cartilaginous Held together by cartilage, no synovial cavity
Synovial United by the dense irregular connective tissue of an articular capsule, has a synovial cavity
Created by: lin_linxo