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AP Gov ch 4

AP Government ch4 vocab

amendability the provision for the Constitution to be changed, so as to adapt to new circumstances
bicameral legislature legislature with two chambers
block grant federal funds provided for a broad purpose, unrestricted by detailed requirements and regulations
categorical grant federal funds provided for a specific purpose, restricted by detailed instructions, regulations, and compliance standards
checks and balances the principle that allows each branch of government to exercise some form of control over the others
concurrent powers powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
confederal systems governments in which local units hold all the power
cooperative federalism the federal system umder which the national and state governments share responsibilities for most domestic policy areas
devolution the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
dual federalism the federal system under which the national and state governments are responsible for separate policy areas
Electoral College an intermediary body that elects the president
enumerated powers of Congress congressional powers specifically named in the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8)
executive the branch of government responsible for putting laws into effect
fusion of powers an alternative to separation of powers, combining or blending branches of government
Gibbons v. Ogden Supreme Court ruling (1824) establishing national authority over interstate business
initiative citizen petitions to place a proposal or constitutional amendment on the ballot, to be adopted or rejected by majority vote, bypassing the legislature
judicial power the power to interpret laws and judge whether a law has been broken
judicial review the power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
legislative supremacy an alternative to judicial review, the acceptance of legislative acts as the final law of the land
legislature the body of government that makes laws
McCulloch v. Maryland Supreme Court ruling (1819) confirming the supremacy of national over state government
necessary and proper clause constitutional authorization for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers
nullifications declaration by a state that a federal law is void within its borders
parliamentary system government in which the executive is chosen by the legislature from among its members and the two branches are merged
presidential system government in which the executive is chosen independently of the legislature and the two branches are separate
recall elections votes to remove elected officials from office
referendum an election in which a bill passed by the state legislature is submitted to voters for approval
republic a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people
separation of powers the institutional arrangement that assigns judicial, executive, and legislative powers to different persons or groups, thereby limiting the powers of each
supremacy clause constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the supreme law of the land
unfunded mandate a federal order mandating that states operate and pay for a program created at the national level
unicameral legislature a legislature with one chamber
unitary system government in which all power is centralized
Created by: that_girl_megan