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SLS Biomolecules MW

SLS Bio 12 Biomolecules MW

TermDefinition
acid a molecule that can donate a proton or accept an electron pair in reactions
adenosine triphosphate a nucleotide that contains a large amount of chemical energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds; energy used for many metabolic processes
amino acid a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group
base bases describe solutions with a pH greater than 7; opposite of an acid
buffer a solution that can maintain a nearly constant pH if it is diluted
carbohydrate any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose
complementary base pairing describes the manner in which the nitrogenous bases of the DNA molecules align with each other
dehydration synthesis when monomers combine with each other via covalent bonds to form larger molecules known as polymers
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the molecule that carries genetic information in all living systems
dipeptide a peptide composed of two amino-acid residues.
disaccharide any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues
double helix a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule
hemoglobin a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates
hydrogen bonding the electrostatic attraction between polar molecules that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom bound to a highly electronegative atom
hydrolysis the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water
lipid any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
monomer a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer
monosaccharide any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar
neutral fat produced by the dehydration synthesis of one or more fatty acids with an alcohol like glycerol
nucleic acids a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA
nucleotide a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group
organic of, relating to, or derived from living matter
peptide bond a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water
pH a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, whether it is an acid or a base
phospholipid a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
polarity a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule having a dipole or multipole moment
polymer a substance that has a molecular structure consisting a number of similar units bonded together
polypeptide a polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain
polysaccharide a carbohydrate (e.x: cellulose) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together
primary structure the sequence of amino acids forming a protein or polypeptide chain
protein any nitrogenous organic compound that consists of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids
quaternary structure the number and arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex
R-group an abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule
ribonucleic acid (RNA) present in all living cells; acts as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins
saturated fatty acid a fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids
secondary structure 2D structure adopted by a polynucleotide or polypeptide chain
solvent liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
starch odorless tasteless white substance occurring widely in plant tissue; a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate store
steroid any of a large class of organic compounds with a molecular structure containing four rings of carbon atoms
tertiary structure 3D structure resulting from folding and covalent cross-linking of a protein or polynucleotide molecule
unsaturated fatty acid a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain (monounsaturated if contains one double bond, polyunsaturated if multiple)
nitrogenous base a molecule containing nitrogen that has the same chemical properties as a base
Created by: megan_wong