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Chapter 3

Physiological Changes of Pregnancy

Breast Changes Nausea & Vomiting Urinary frequency Fatigue Quickening (16-20 weeks) Amenorrhea Uterus enlargment What are the presumptive signs of pregnancy?
Abdominal enlargement Hegar's sign Goodell's sign Chadwick's sign Positive pregnancy test Ballottement Braxton Hicks Contractions Fetal outline palpated by examiner What are the probable signs of pregnancy?
Fetal heart sounds Visualization of fetus by ultrasound Fetal movements palpated by an experienced examiner What are the probable signs of pregnancy?
Production can start as early as the day of implantation Levels peak around 60-70 days of gestation and decline until about the 80th day and will gradually increase till end of pregnancy What is hCG?
Refers to the number of pregnancies in a woman's history What is gravidity?
Refers the number of pregnancies that reached viability (20 weeks) What is parity?
Acronym used to determine a woman's obstetric history What is GTPAL?
Uterus increases in size, changes shape and position Menses and ovulation stop What are reproductive changes during pregnancy?
Increased cardiac output Blood volume will increase by 45-50% Increased HR What are the cardiovascular changes during pregnancy?
Diaphragm displacement occurs as uterus gets larger Lung capacity decreases RR increases What are the respiratory changes during pregnancy?
Weight increase and necessitate an adjustment to posture Slight relaxation and increased mobility of the pelvic joints What are the musculoskeletal changes during pregnancy?
Nausea and vomiting (early pregnancy) Displacement of stomach and intestines Delayed gastric motility and gastric emptying can result in constipation What are the gastrointestinal changes during pregnancy?
Filtration rate increase Urine production stays the same Urinary frequency (1st and 3rd trimesters) What are the renal changes during pregnancy?
By 14th week placenta produces large amounts of hCG progesterone estrogen human placental lactogen prostoglandins What are endocrine changes during pregnancy?
Created by: escobarvictoria