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SLSBio12moleculesHO

SLS Bio12 Biomolecules HO

TermDefinition
Acid Has PH levels ranging from 1 to about 6.9. Acids are corrosive. They contribute H+ ions to a solution. Acids are conductors.
Adenosine Is a structural component present in DNA and RNA. Is present in all living things.
Triphosphate (ATP) An organic compound composed of adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups
Amino acid Amino acids are used to build proteins in our bodies.
Base Has PH levels ranging from about 7.1 to 14. Bases remove H+ions from a solution. Bases are conductors. They are caustic
Buffer A fail safe mechanism used by our bodies to regulate our blood PH keeping us healthy. Buffers can be overloaded. It can accept or donate H+ ions as needed. The most common Buffer in our bodies is the bicarbonate ion found in our blood.
Carbohydrate An organic compound containing a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. They can be broken down to release energy in living organisms.
Complementary base pairing the way in which the base molecules of DNA molecules combine. It is responsible for DNA's double helix structure
Dehydration synthesis The fusing of molecules resulting in a loss of water
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Molecule that carries genetic information specific to the organism its present in. DNA is in all living organisms. The code of DNA makes living things the way they are.
Dipeptide a peptide composed of two amino-acid residues.
Disaccharide a carbohydrate that is formed when two monosaccharides are joined together and a molecule of water is removed from the molecule
Double Helix The structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA
Hemoglobin a protein responsible for the distribution of oxygen to tissue through red blood cells.
Hydrogen bonding the incredibly strong chemical bond that occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to a Nitrogen, Oxygen, or Florine atom
Hydrolysis The reaction of water with another chemical compound to form two or more products
Lipid any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
Monomer a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.
Monosaccharide Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. They are smaller part of complex carbs found in fruits.
Neutral fat Neutral fats are neutral because they are uncharged and do not contain acidic or basic groups.
Nucleic acids a organic substance present in living cells. Primarily found in DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides strung together.
Nucleotide Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Organic pertaining to living things. living tissue. Organisms based from carbon.
Peptide bond A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.
pH the symbol of the scale used for measuring acids and bases on a 14 point display. Acids-1-6 Bases-8-14 Neutral-7
Phospholipid a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
Polarity Tendency of a molecule, or compound, to be attracted or repelled by electrical charges because of the arrangement of positively or negatively charged atoms in a molecule
Polymer a very large, chain molecule made up of monomers, which are small molecules. It can be naturally occurring or synthetic.
Polypeptide a chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Polysaccharide a carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.
Primary structure the basic sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or protein.
Protein A long chain of amino acids essential to all living organisms. There are many types of proteins.
Quaternary arrangement of more than one protein molecule in a multi-sub unit complex
R-Group any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) a nucleic acid in all living cells. It acts as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins
Saturated fatty acid Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. the chain of carbon atoms is fully "saturated" with hydrogen
Secondary structure The folded, helical structure of double-stranded DNA.
Solvent A substance that dissolves a solute that is chemically different from it creating a solution.
Starch a tasteless solid carbohydrate. Most commonly found in rice, beans and potatoes.
Steroid A group of fat soluble organic compounds.
Tertiary structure Any of numerous fat-soluble organic compounds found naturally in animals, plants, and fungi, or produced synthetically.
Unsaturated fatty acid the carbon chain of which possesses one or more double or triple bonds. Its called unsaturated because it is capable of absorbing extra hydrogen.
Nitrogenous base A molecule containing Nitrogen with properties of a base
Created by: holesen821