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Test 1

Layers of Scrotum Skin, Tunica Dartos, Scrotal Fascia, Parietal Vaginal Tunic
Layers of Teste Lining Visceral Vaginal Tunic, Tunica Albuginea, Tunica Vasculosa
Muscles of the Penis Ischiocavernosus (root of penis, short and strong); Urethralis (surrounds urethra, movement of seminal plasma and sperm); Bulbospongiosus (covers bulbourethral glands, overlaps root of penis, empties extra pelvic urethra)
1st Trimester Events Migration of Primoridal Cells from yolk, sex cords develop
Between Trimester 1 and 2 Development of male or female ducts and parts
Trimester 2 Events Formation of Broad Ligaments
Trimester 3 Testicular Descent
Where is the morula located? Uterus
What is the fluid filled space in an egg called? Blastocoel
What is the placental part of the cell called? Trophoblast
What phases does the maternal gene control? Oocyte growth, LH Surge, Fertilization, and Cleavage
What phase does the embryonic gene control? Cleavage
What days does the cleavage begin on? Day 4-8
What is the cell called when it begins to fill with fluid? Blastula
Which form of the cell is used in IVF? Hatching Blastocyst
What is it called when the blastula begins to differentiate into ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm? Gastrula
What is differentiated from the ectoderm? Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and nervous system, oral cavity, nasal cavity, reproductive tract (vagina, vestibule, penis, clitoris)
What is differentiated from the mesoderm? Muscles, Blood Vessels, Repro System (gonads, uterus, cervix, part of vagina, epididymis, ductus deferens, accessory sex glands), urinary system, skeletal sytem
What is differentiated from the endoderm? Digestive system, respiratory system, most glands
What two things compose the pituitary gland? Rathke's Pouch (roof of mouth) and Infundibulum (brain)
What bone is the pituitary gland enclosed in? Sella Turcica
What are the 3 phases of the urogenital differentiation process? Pronephros (primitive kidney), mesonephros (temporary kidney), metanephros (definite kidney)
Which part of urogenital system differentiates into the repro system? Mesonephros
What is drained through the mesonephric ducts? Urine
What is the mesonephric duct also known as? Wolffian Ducts
What ducts originate beside the mesonephric ducts? Paramesonephric ducts
What is another name for the paramesonephric ducts? Mullarian Ducts
What determines in TDF will be present? The existence of a Y chromosome
Which gene is responsible for making the embryo a male? SRY Gene
What is TDF responsible for? preventing estrogen formation and making the fetus a male
What do primitive sex cords create? What is needed for this transformation? Seminiferous Tubules; SRY Gene
What creates AMH? Sertoli Cells
What makes testosterone? Leydig Cells
Where do the sertoli cells lie? In the Sem. Tubules
Which enzyme converts Testosterone into another Hormone? 5 - alpha reductase
What is 5-alpha reductase made from? Leydig Cells
Complete the Analogy for males and females: Genital Tubercle: Urogentical Folds: Labioscrotal Swelling: Male: penis, penile shaft, scrotum Female: Clitoris, Labia minora, labia majora
If no TDF is present, which gender is formed? A female
What do primitive sex cords differentiate into in a woman? Follicles within cortex
What happens if there is no AMH? Mullarian Duct differntiates
What happens if there is no Testosterone? Wolffian Duct degenerates
How is the female tubular system formed? With the fusion of the mullarian ducts
During which month can the sex of a human be determined? 5th
When do the testicles descend? Anytime after the 1st trimester
What is the testicular decsent process stimulated by? Testosterone
What are the testes attached to that allow them to be pulled into the scrotum? Gubernaculum
What is the gubernaculum attached to that allows for it to pull the testes down? Peritoneum
How is the inguinal ring formed? By the cells of the perineum being wrapped around the gubernaculum
What is allowed to form as the gubernaculum grows into scrotum? The vaginal process
What happens to the gubernaculum once the teste has entered the scrotum? It shrinks and pulls the testicle down further
What are the two layers of peritoneum once the testes descend? Visceral and Parietal Vaginal Tunics
What does it mean to be a true hermaphrodite? You have combination of gonadal tissue (ovatestis)
What does it mean to be a gynandromorph? You have an ovary on one side and testis on the other (both the mullarian ducts and wolffian ducts differentiate)
What is pseudohermaphroditism? Gonads agree with chromosomal sex but external genitalia appear to be with the opposite sex (inside vs outside)
What is testicular feminization syndrome? When you have normal testes but incomplete masculinzation of wolffian duct and external genitalia (not enough testosterone or DHT or receptors could be lacking) ; you have female like genitalia; no mullarian duct derivatives due to AMH secretion
What is a person with guevedoces missing? 5 alpha reductase to convert the testosterone to DHT in the Leydig cell
What is adrenogenital syndrome or congenital adrenal hyperplasia and what is it caused by? When Cortisol is too low, CRH and ACTH are stimulated by negative feedback too much. The adrenal gland therefore increases in size and therefore release too many androgens (testosterone) which will masculinize the fetus
What will progesterone do to a fetus? It will masculinize it because it acts like testosterone (females will exhibit pseudohermaphroditism)
How do chromosomal errors occur? Failure of 2 sex chromosomes to separate during meisosis in testis or ovary
What are the chromosomes like in Turners syndrome? X (only 1 X); female external genitalia; facial abnormalities, short broad webbed neck; ovaries are just mainly connective tissue
What are the chromosomes like in Klinefelter's Syndrome? XXY; sterile but have female breasts, small genitalia, undescended testicles, urethra may fail to close
What is cryptorchid testes? Undescended testes?
What are undescended testes called? Cryptorchid testes
What are supermales? X egg and YY sperm; very tall often have acne; mental and social problems
What is bilateral cryotochidism? one side descended but the other did not; one side would be sterile but still produce testosterone
What is freemartinism? When twins share a placenta, and the male twin secretes AMH, which causes the female tract in the female embryo to be incomplete
What is it called when a male is missing a penis due to the genital tubercle not forming? Penile Agenesis
How does a double penis form? Two genital tubercles are formed
What is a bifid penis? Genital tubercle branches
How does a person get a micropenis? When the pituitary gland does not develop
What is an arcuate uterus? A curved uterus
How do you get a double uterus and vagina? When you have non fusion
Created by: 1363731667