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Genetics Review

Heredity The passing of traits from parent to offspring
What is the structure of DNA? Double Helix
Heterozygous A genotype with two different alleles, one dominant and one recessive
Homozygous A genotype with the of the same alleles
Homozygous Dominant A genotype with two dominant alleles
Homozygous Recessive A genotype with two recessive alleles
Genotype An organism's allele combination
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance
Gene The genetic information passed from parent to offspring
Allele Different versions of a gene: dominant or recessive
Gregor Mendel The scientist that is credited with developing the theory of modern genetics
Chromosome Threadlike structures that contain an organism's DNA
Trait A physical feature that an organism inherits from its parent
Dominant Trait A trait that is always observed when the allele is present
Recessive Trait A trait that is only observed when there are two recessive alleles inherited
What are the three parts of cell theory? 1. All living things are made of cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things 3. Cells come from other cells
What are the three reasons that cells divide? Cells divide for growth, repair, and reproduction
What are the two types of cell division? Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis Cell division that creates body cells for growth, repair, and asexual reproduction
Meiosis Cell division that creates sex cells for sexual reproduction
Hybrid is a synonym for... Heterozygous
Purebred is a synonym for... Homozygous
Co-dominance A trait in which two alleles demonstrate the dominant trait
Example of co-dominance in humans blood type
What are the four human blood types? Type A, Type B, Type AB, Type O
Which alleles for blood type are codominant? A and B
Which allele for blood type is recessive? O
What is incomplete dominance? A trait in which neither allele demonstrates the dominant trait, creating a third phenotype that is a blend of the two (example: A red flower and a white flower can create a pink flower).