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Life Science Unit Test: Cells

M.R.S. G.R.E.N. The characteristics of living things: Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excrete, Nutrition
CELL A cell is the smallest part of a living organism
CELL THEORY Cell theory states: 1. Cells come from cells/living things 2. Living things are made of cells. 3. Cells performs specific functions.
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are molecules of sugars and starches in cells.
PROTEINS Proteins are molecules of fuel and enzymes to process fuel in cells.
LIPIDS Lipids are molecules of fats in cells.
NUCLEIC ACIDS Nucleic acids are acids containing information (such as DNA) in cells.
ENZYMES Enzymes are proteins that serves as a catalyst to bind or break down other proteins.
CELL MEMBRANE The cell membrane is a thin flexible layer surrounding the cytoplasm; it allows selective molecules in and out of the cell.
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY Selective permeability allows only certain molecules to pass through the cell membrane.
FLUID MOSAIC The fluid mosaic is the name for the model of the flexible pattern of a cell membrane.
DIFFUSION Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a high area of concentration (a lot) to a low area of concentration (a little).
OSMOSIS Osmosis is diffusion of water.
CELL WALL The cell wall is the firm outer boundary of plant cells.
ORGANELLE Organelles are the smaller parts of a cell that perform functions (jobs).
MITOCHONDRIA The mitochondria organelles of the cell make power for the cell.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM The ER is the organelle of a cell that transports materials through the cytoplasm.
DNA DNA is a nucleic acid that contains instructions for the cell.
NUCLEUS The nucleus is organelle of the cell that commands the cell (the brain of the cell).
RIBOSOMES The ribosomes assemble proteins in the cell.
GOLGI APPARATUS The Golgi body or apparatus packages chemicals in the cell.
VACUOLE The vacuole stores food, water, and chemicals.
LYSOMES Lysosomes destroy waste in animal cells.
CHLOROPLAST The chloroplast organelle has chlorophyll to capture light energy.
CILIA The cilia are small hair like structures outside of cells for movement.
FLAGELLA The flagellum is a long whip like structure outside of the cell for movement.
CHROMOSOMES Chromosomes are strands of DNA in the nucleus that dictates heredity.
CYTOLOGY The study of cells.
UNICELLULAR A living organism made up of one cell.
MULTI-CELLULAR A living organism made up of many cells.
TISSUE A group of similar cells working together for a similar function.
ORGAN Two or more tissues working together for a similar function.
FUNCTION To produce a result or to have a useful purpose.
TURGOR PRESSURE Water pressure inside of a plant cell’s vacuole; helps to maintain stiffness of stems and leaves in plants.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION The process by which cells obtain usable energy from energy sources.
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION The process by which cells obtain usable energy from energy sources - which does NOT use oxygen.
AEROBIC RESPIRATION The process by which cells obtain usable energy from energy sources - using oxygen.
ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION Anaerobic cellular respiration from sugar which produces alcohol and carbon.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS The process that forms simple sugars from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy.
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION Anaerobic cellular respiration from sugar which produces lactic acid.
Created by: MsRobinG