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Human Physiology

Exam 1

Physiology is the study of: how parts of an organism function.
What is the major underlying theme of physiology? Homeostasis
What is the relative constancy of the internal environment inf the face of a fluctuating external environment? Homeostasis
What are the two primary methods of maintaining homeostasis? Negative Feedback Loop Positive Feedback Loop
Aimed at maintaining both short-term and long-term homeostasis: Negative Feedback Loop
Aimed at maintaining long-term homeostasis Positive Feedback Loop
Occur when a value in the body such as internal body temperature moves away from a set-point. Negative Feedback Loop
Occur when a small change in a value results in an even bigger change which results in an even bigger change in that value. Move a value further and further from set-point until some specific goal is reached. Positive Feedback Loop
Contractions during labor result in even bigger contractions that cause bigger contractions until delivery occurs. This is an example of: Positive Feedback Loop
Temperature, Levels of hormones, rates of cell division, muscle lengths, blood pressure are examples of: Negative Feedback Loop
Contractions during labor, immune resonse, blood clotting, ovulation, action potentials in nerve cells are examples of: Positive Feedback Loop
How is physiology studied: By use of scientific method.
What type of feedback loop controls blood clotting after a shallow cut? Positive Feedback Loop
Cells cultured outside the body In vitro
Drugs tested on healthy humans to determine how the drug is handled by the body Phase I Clinical Trials
Drugs tested on the target population Phase II Clinical Trials
Maximize range of test subjects and conditions Phase III Clinical Trials
Other potential uses of the drug Phase IV Clinical Trials
In which phase of development of a new drug is the drug tested on the target population? Phase II Clinical Trials
The fundamental unit of life is a: cell
When cells are arranged in groups they are called: tissues
What are the four basic types of human tissue: Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Generate mechanical activities that produce force and movement. (e.g. heart, limbs intestine, uterus) muscle tissue
Initiate and conduct electrical impulses. nervous tissue
Selectively secrete and absorb ions and organic molecules, membranes,and glands. (e.g. intestine, salivary glands) epithelial tissue
connect, anchor and support structures of the body. (e.g. cartilage, blood, bone, adipose) connective tissue
What type of tissue whould you expect to selectively absorb food molecules in the intestine? epithelial
What four elements make up 99% of atoms in the body: Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
The three primary chemical bonds that hold molecules in the body together are: covalent, ionic, hydrogen
Strong bonds that occur when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. Covalent bonds
What type of bond is produced when electrons are shared equally nonpolar covalent bond
What type of bond is produced when electrons are shared unequally polar covalent bond
Occurs when a strongly electronegative atom steals an electron from a weakly electronegative atom to crate a negative charge on one atom and a positive charge on the other atom. Ionic bonds
Form when there is an electrical attraction between the H atom in a polar bond with a strongly electronegative atom in the polar bond of another molecule. Hydrogen bond
What type of bond is formed when an electron pair is shared between two atoms, but the electrons spend more of their time around one more than the other. Polar bond
Molecules attracted to water have what type of bonds Polar
Which type of bond is the weakest? hydrogen
Human body temperature is an example of homeostasis because body temperature stays relatively constant even when humans encounter extreme fluctuations in the temperature of the external environment. (True or False) True
Molecules with polar bonds are attracted to water. (True or False) True
A molecule that is composed of 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms is a valid carbohydrate. (True or False) True
movement of molecules from where they are in high concentration to where they are in low concentration solely as result of random movement of molecules Diffusion
3 things that affect the rate of diffusion are: 1. Magnitude of the concentration gradient across the membrane 2. The permeability of the membrane to the diffusing substance 3. The surface area of the membrane through which the substance is diffusing
diffusion of water across membrane that is impermeable to most other compounds; Water moves from where water is in high concentration to where water is in low concentration. Osmosis
occurs when a substance is transported down a concentration gradient by a transport proteintext annotation indicator; does not require the addition of energy Facilitated diffusion
active transport of molecules using a protein (pump) that uses ATP as the energy source ex: Na+/K+ pump Primary active transport
uses energy of ion moving DOWN its electrochemical gradient to drive transport of a different molecule UP its electrochemical gradient. Secondary active transport
transport of macromolecules into the cell by forming vesicles from plasma membrane; includes phagocytosistext annotation indicator and pinocytosistext annotation indicator Endocytosis
transport of macromolecules out of cell by fusion of vesicles with plasma membrane Exocytosis
What is the energy source of primary active transport? ATP
proteins that act as catalyststext annotation indicator to increase the rate of reactions by lowering the activation energytext annotation indicator of the reaction. Enzymes
Properties of enzymes include: Specificity Affinity Saturation Competition
What affects reaction rates? Enzyme concentration Enzyme activity Substrate and product concentrations End product inhibition
the shape of enzyme's functional site is altered to match the ligand by binding of a molecule to enzyme's regulatory site; activates the enzyme Allosteric modulation
the shape of enzyme's functional site is altered to match the ligand by covalent bonding of charged chemical group to enzyme; activates the enzyme Covalent modulation
An enzyme that can only bind to one ligand is more specifc than an enzyme that can bind to three ligands. (True or false) True
Basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system neuron
transmit information from sensory receptors into the CNS, cell body and the long peripheral process of the axon are in the PNStext annotation indicator; only the short central process of the axon enters the CNS; may have no dendrites Afferent Neurons
transmit information out of the CNS to effector cells (particularly muscles, glands, or other neurons); cell body, dendrites, and a small segment of the axon are in the CNS; most of the axon is in the PNS Efferent Neurons
Integrators, signal changers; process sensory information from afferent neurons; send commnds to efferent neurons; perform functions thought, memory, & emotions; integrate afferent & efferent neurons into reflex circuits; in the CNS; account for 99% of ne Interneurons
carry information about both the internal and the external environment to the central nervous system, interneurons organize that information and decide what to do with it Afferent Neurons
carry information about how to respond to that information back out to effectors in the body Efferent Neurons
cells that "support" neurons; account for approximately 90% of the cells in the nervous system Glial Cells:
critical to formation of BBB, stimulate endothelial cells to form tight junctions, sustain neurons metabolically, regulate composition of extracellular fluid by removing potassium ions and NTs from synapses, guide neurons during development, promote growt Astrocytes:
line the cerebral ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord, found in CNS Ependymal
perform immune functions in CNS Microglia
form myelin around axons in the central nervous system Oligodendrocytes
form myelin around axons in the peripheral nervous system Schwann Cells
Which class of neuron carries informatin towards the CNS? afferent neurons
Neurons have a very high metabolic rate. (true or false) True
What percent of the cells in the nervous system are glial cells? 90%
enlarged portion of the cell that contains the nucleus and produces macromolecules Cell body
thin branched processestext annotation indicator that extend from the cytoplasm of the cell body and serve as a receptive area that transmits electrical impulses to the cell body Dendrites
process that carries information away from the cell body Axon
the site where an axon originates on a cell body that is specialized for the initiation of action potentialstext annotation indicator in an axon Axon Hillock
branches of an axon Axon Collateral
The electrical signal that occurs within a neuron is called an action potential (AP)
occur before the synpase Presynaptic neurons
occur after the synpase postsynaptic neurons
What is the correct order of informatin flow within a neuron? dendrite, cell body, axon
difference in voltage between two points Potential Difference (E)
difference in voltage across the plasma membrane from the inside of the cell to the outside of a cell Membrane Potential (Vm)
difference in voltage between the inside and outside of a cell when the cell is at rest (not sending signals) Resting Vm
a relatively small change in membrane potential produced by some type of stimulus that triggers the opening or closing of ion channels; size of a graded potential is dependent upon the size of the stimulus Graded Potential
graded potential produced in a post-synpatic cell in response to neurotransmitters binding to receptors Synaptic Potential
graded potential produced in response to a stimulus acting on a sensory receptor Receptor Potential
large, rapid change in membrane potential produced by depolarization of an excitable cell's plasma membrane past threshold; the electrical signal in a neuron; APs are "all-or-none" Action Potential
the membrane potential that counters the chemical forces acting to move an ion across a membrane which puts the ion at equilibrium; the membrane potential that a cell would have if it were based on a single ion which is allowed to come to equilibrium Equilibrium Potential
The membrane potential of a cell is based on two factors: 1. the electrochemical gradienttext annotation indicator of all the ions in the intracellular and extracellular fluid 2. the permeability of the cell membrane to those ions.
describes the membrane potential that would result in a neuron if only a single type of ion determined the membrane potential of a cell. This is called the ion's "equilibrium potential". The Nernst equation
An electrical signal in a neuron must have some type of trigger called a ________ to occur. stimulus
cause a cell membrane to depolarize a little bit which means to become more positive/less negative. EPSP or excitatory post-synaptic potential
What will occur If a stimulus is big enough to cause a graded potential that is big enough to cause the cell membrane potential to reach threshold action potential
Immediately following an action potential, the portion of a cell membrane that just underwent the electrical signal enters into a less excitable period called the: refractory period.
a stimulus that triggers a graded potential that does NOT cause the cell membrane to reach threshold so does NOT cause an action potential Subthreshold Stimulus
a stimulus that is big enough to trigger a graded potential that causes the cell membrane to reach threshold and triggers an action potential Threshold Stimulus
a stimulus that is bigger than needed to trigger a big enough graded potential to cause the cell membrane to reach threshold and trigger an action potential Suprathreshold Stimulus
the time period immediately following an action potential in which it is impossible to trigger an action potential because all of the voltage-gated sodium ion channels are closed and inactivated Absolute Refractory Period:
the time period immediately following the absolute refractory period in which it is difficult but not impossible (need a bigger stimulus) to trigger a second action potential because some but not all of the voltage-gated sodium in channels are activated Relative Refractory Period
When an action potential reaches the axon terminal of a neuron, the electrical signal gets transduced into a chemical signal in the form of a neurotransmitter. (true or false) True
used as a neurotransmitter in both the CNS and PNS, but it is the most abundant NTtext annotation indicator in the PNS where it is used by efferent neurons of the somatic and autonomic branches. Acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter is the most abundant NT in the CNS? amino acids
consists of the brain and spinal cord; Central Nervous System
motor neurons are efferent neurons that lead to skeletal muscle cell body is in CNS have one synapse directly onto muscle excitatory only use acetylcholine Somatic NS
the pathway that information travels to reach perception or the conscious interpretation of the world based on the sensory system itself, memory, and other neural processes. sensory system
Created by: klmd3014