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Heme-Onc 1

First Aid Q&A: Hematology & Oncology 1

QuestionAnswer
The best prognostic indicator of melanoma Depth of invastion into dermis (vertical growth)
43 yro male with epigastric pain, heartburn, weight loss for 4 months; few occasions of black, tarry stools; diffuse epigastric pain. Diagnosis? Zollinger-Ellison
Pancoast's tumor impinging on cervical sympathetic plexus. What is the syndrome and it's symptoms? Horner's syndrome: ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
Risk factors for breast cancer Family history, delayed menopause (>50), early menarche (<12), late pregnancy (>30), old age
Site of action: heparin vs. low molecular weight heparin Heparin works on antithrombin III and Xa, whereas LMW heparin works predominantly on Xa
Warfarin blocks activation of what processes? Vitamin K dependent processes (II, VII, IX, and X)
Brain tumor predominantly in children found exclusively in cerebellum Medulloblastoma
Most common brain tumor of adults; found in the cerebral hemispheres. Grave prognosis (almost zero survival at 5 years) Glioblastoma multiforme
Benign tumor found in frontal lobes, classically described as consisting of "fried egg" cells Oligodendroglioma
Most common supratentorial tumor in children, derived from remnants of Rathke's pouch Craniopharyngioma
Nonmalignat neoplasm arising from arachnoid granulations Meningioma
Lack of uroporphyrinogen I synthetase. Symptoms result from buildup of delta-ALA and porphobilinogen Acute intermitten porphyria; symptoms 4 P's (painful abdomen, pink urine, polyneuropathy, psychological disturbances)
Most common form of thyroid cancer, often associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Papillary carcinoma, excellent prognosis
Thyroid histology reveals branching papillae lined by epithelial cells with ground glass nuclei "Orphan Annie eye nuclei" and concentrically calcified psammoma bodies. Papillary carcinoma
Thyroid histology reveals uniform cells surrounding colloid-filled follicles with Hurthle cells; no psammoma bodies Follicular carcinoma; second most common thyroid cancer
Neoplasm of parafollicular or C cells of thyroid resulting in increased serum calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma; may be associated with MEN II when bilateral
Congenital abnormality caused by persistance of diverticulum formed during thyroid gland migration Thyroglossal cyst
Deficiency in Hemophilia A Factor VIII; X linked
Deficiency in Hemophilia B Factor IX; X linked
Multiple micro-infarcts in spleen result in functional asplenia, patients are thus susceptible to encapsulated bacterium. Diagnosis? Sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell patients are at risk of having an aplastic crises often associated with what infection? B19 parvovirus
Splenomegaly and fatigue with Auer rod cytoplasmic inclusions on peripheral blood smear. Diagnosis? AML
Splenomegaly and fatigue with teardrop-shaped RBC's on peripheral blood smear. Diagnosis? Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis
Splenomegaly and fatigue with B cells showing filamentous projections Hairy cell leukemia
Common site of metastasis for GI tumors Liver (portal blood flow)
Common site of metastasis for breast, kidney, and lung tumors Most often brain and bone
What is the mechanism of lead poisening resulting in anemia? Lead inhibits ALA dehydratase and ferrochetalase preventing porphobilinogen formation and iron incorporation
Familial adenomatous polyposis results from mutation of what chromosome? Chromosome 5
What abnormal labs are expected with cobalamin deficiency? Increased mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and elevated and methylmalonic acid
What disorders are associated with MEN IIA and what oncogene is distinct? Parathyroid hyperplasia or tumor, medullary carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma; Ret oncogene
What disorders are associated with MEN I? Wermer's syndrome effects 3 P's: pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas
Parasitic infection presenting with hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, anemia, malaise and weight common to middle east locations Leishmania donovani
Parasitic infection presenting with bloating, flatulence, and foul smelling diarrhea. Giardia lamblia
parasitic infection with 48 hour cyclic fever, can remain dormant in the liver for long periods of time Plasmodium ovale
Where does intrinsic factor bind B12 and later receptors? IF binds B12 in small intestine (not stomach) and receptors in distal ileum (ileal resection can result in B12 deficiency)
Function of transcobalamin II binds B12 in ileal cells for transport through bloodstream
Tumor arising from embryonic renal cells from the embryonic kidney. Most common solid tumor of childhood (most occurring between 2-4 years) Wilm's tumor
Tumor derived from renal tubular cells commonly in male smokers age 50 to 70 years. Clear cell carcinoma of the kidney
Most common tumor of the urinary tract, usually presenting with painless hematuria and urinary outflow obstruction Transitional cell carcinoma
Complement mediated RBC lysis due to insufficient synthesis of GPI anchors. Dark urine in the morning. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Deficiency of vWF metalloprotease resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with schistocytes on peripheral blood smear. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
Created by: rahjohnson