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Sun, Moon, Earth

seasons, moon, tides, eclipses

QuestionAnswer
What causes the moon to glow? Sunlight reflects off the moon
Waxing moon phases can be described as.... the moon appears to grow in size (always illuminated on the right)
Waning moon phases can be described as... the moon appears to shrink in size (always illuminated on the left)
Why do we experience moon phases? We experience moon phases because the sunlight reflects off of the moon. When the moon revolves around Earth, we see different portions of the illuminated part of the moon. (Look at your Lunar Lab Notes)
What direction does the moon revolve around Earth? counter-clockwise
What direction does the Earth revolve around the sun? counter-clockwise
How would you describe a gibbous moon? more than half full, but less than full
How would you describe a crescent moon? less than half full, looks like a thumbnail
During the new moon phase, describe the location of the moon in its orbit around Earth... the moon would be located between Earth and the sun
During what phase is the moon farthest from the sun? full moon
Why is a quarter moon named a quarter when it looks like half? One half of the moon is always facing Earth. During a quarter moon half of the half we see is illuminated (half of a half is one fourth or a quarter)
Approximately how long does it take for the moon to make one revolution around Earth? 1 month
Approximately how long does it take for the moon to rotate once on its axis? 1 month
Why do we always see the same side of the moon? The moon spins on its axis at the same speed it revolves around the sun. The time it takes for one revolution is the same as one rotation.
If the moon didn't rotate on its axis, what would change? We would see all sides of the moon as it revolves around Earth.
A spring tide occurs during the ______________ and _____________ phases of the moon. new, full
A neap tide occurs during the _______________ and _____________ phases of the moon. 1st, 3rd quarters
Describe the high and low tides during a neap tide... neap tides are the weakest tides- lowest high tides and the highest low tides
Why are neap tides considered weak? The moon and sun are perpendicular to each other so their gravitational pull is working in different directions (high tide is always aligned with the moon because it is closer, making it stronger)
Why is there an extreme difference in high and low tides during a spring tide? The moon and sun are both in line with Earth. Their gravitational forces are combined to create really high high tides Since there is nothing pulling water away from the Earth perpendicular the the sun and moon the low tides are really low.
What types of tides occur during the gibbous and crescent phases of the moon? Tides are gradually transitioning from spring to neap or neap to spring
What fraction of the moon is always illuminated? half, 1/2
How many hours are there between high tide and low tide? Approximately 6 hours, technically 6 hours and 12.5 minutes
How many high tides are there in a day? How many low tides in a day? 2 of each
If the tide is high at 7 AM, approximately when will the next high tide occur? 7:25 PM
If the tide is low at 4 PM, approximately when will the next high tide occur? 10:12 PM
If it is a full moon, how would you describe the tides? really high high tides, really low low tides
If it is a first quarter moon, how would you describe the tides? weak- low high tides and high low tides (not much of a difference between the two)
If it is a waxing gibbous moon, how would you describe the tides? high tides will be getting higher and low tides will be getting lower (the difference between the two is increasing) because they are transitioning from neap tides to spring tides.
STUDY LUNAR PHASE LAB AND SHAVING CREAM LAB! Practice drawing the diagram. Remember, depending how you look at it, the sun could be coming from any side of the paper!
During what phases of the moon is the moon closer to the sun than the Earth is? waxing/waning crescents, new
During what phases of the moon is the moon farther from the sun than the Earth is? waxing/waning gibbous, full
How would you describe the change of the tides as the moon transitions from the new moon to first quarter? High tide will gradually decrease and low tide will gradually increase because it will be transitioning from spring to neap tide
How would you describe the tides during a waning crescent moon? High tide will be increasing in height and low tides will be decreasing in height until the moon reaches its new phase because we will be transitioning from neap tide to spring tide.
Why do tides vary up to 50 minutes each day? The moon is slowly making its revolution around Earth, much slower than Earth's rotation. A place on Earth facing the moon takes 24 hours and 50 minutes for it to get back to facing the moon again. This means one tidal cycle is 24 hours and 50 minutes.
What influence does the sun have on tides? The sun's gravitational pull can pull water away from Earth but it is not as strong as the moon's gravitational pull because the moon is closer to Earth than the sun.
What influence does the sun have on spring tides? During a spring tide the sun and moon are aligned with Earth. Their gravitational forces (and inertia) combine to make the high tides extra high.
What influence does the sun have on neap tides? During a neap tide the sun and moon are perpendicular. The moon is closer to Earth, so it has a stronger forming high tide. The sun's pull is not as strong as the moon, but it still pulls the water away from Earth some, making low tides higher than normal
How much time passes between low tide and high tide? 6 hours and 12.5 minutes (this is one fourth of one full tidal cycle)
How much time passes from high tide to high tide? approximately 12 hours, technically 12 hours and 25 minutes
What does illuminated mean? bright, lit up
During what phase of the moon can a solar eclipse occur? new moon
What causes a solar eclipse? The shadow of the moon falls on Earth, blocking the view of the sun
During what phase of the moon can a lunar eclipse occur? full moon
What causes a lunar eclipse? Earth's shadow falls on the moon, blocking our view of the moon
Why don't eclipses occur every time there is a new or full moon? the moon's orbit is tilted, so most of the time the shadows of the moon and Earth do not fall on each other, but rather above or below one another
What tidal range occurs during an eclipse? spring tides- Earth, moon, and sun are all in a line
Is it possible for an eclipse to occur during a neap tide? Why/why not? No- During a neap tide the moon and sun are perpendicular to one another so the shadows of the moon or Earth do not line up
If you are standing in the umbra of the moon on Earth, what type of eclipse will you see? total solar eclipse
If you are standing in the penumbra of the moon on Earth, what type of eclipse will you see? partial solar eclipse
Which is more common, a lunar or solar eclipse? Why? Lunar- Earth's shadow is much larger than the moon so it is more likely for the moon to pass through the larger shadow
Which type of eclipse lasts longer? Why? Lunar- Earth's shadow is larger so it takes longer for the moon to pass through
When the moon passes through the penumbra of Earth's shadow what type of eclipse do we see? penumbral lunar eclipse
When the moon is part in the umbra and part in the penumbra of Earth's shadow what type of eclipse do we see? partial lunar eclipse
When the moon falls in the umbra of Earth's shadow what type of eclipse do we see? total lunar eclipse
What is the shortest (least amount of day light) day of the year for the northern hemisphere? December 21 (winter solstice)
What is the longest (most hours of day light) day of the year for the northern hemisphere? June 21 (summer solstice)
What is significant about the equinoxes? The entire Earth experiences approximately the same amount of sunlight (12 hours light), about equal day and night
When the southern hemisphere is experiencing summer what season is the northern hemisphere experiencing? Why? northern is experiencing winter because we would be tilted away from the sun receiving less direct sunlight
What season occurs between December 21 and March 21? winter
What season occurs between the fall equinox and the winter solstice? fall
What season occurs between the summer solstice and the fall equinox? summer
What season occurs between March 21 and June 21 spring
What causes Ohio to have seasons? Ohio is in the northern hemisphere and Earth's axis is tilted. As Earth revolves around the sun the tilt changes the amount of direct sunlight Ohio receives and that causes a change in temperature and length of daylight.
Earth spinning on it's axis is an example of ___________? (rotation or revolution) rotation
The moon moving around Earth is an example of __________? (rotation or revolution? revolution
How do shadows change throughout the seasons? Shadows are longest in the winter because the sun takes its lowest path across the sky when we are tilted away from the sun. This causes light and shadows to be more spread out. Summer has the shortest shadows because the sun takes the highest path.
How do shadows change throughout the day? As the sun rises it is at approximately a 180 degree angle with Earth so shadows are long. As the sun continues to rise shadows decrease in size and become smallest at noon (sun is overhead). After noon shadows decrease in size until sun sets.
If we measured the shadow of a tree on Dec 21st at 1:30 in the afternoon how would it compare to the shadow of the same tree at the same time on May 30th? The shadow would be longer/bigger in December than in May because the sun is taking the lower path in the sky in the winter since we are tilted away from the sun.
Why are the hours of daylight the same for the northern and southern hemispheres during an equinox? Neither hemisphere is tilted towards or away from the sun at these points in Earth's revolution around the sun, Therefore, each hemisphere is receiving nearly equal hours of sunlight.
Created by: Mrs.Koch