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Nat 5 Cells

Nat 5 Membranes and Mitosis

QuestionAnswer
What happens to animal cells when they are placed in pure water? Water moves into them by osmosis, they swell up and eventually BURST (lyse).
What happens to plant or fungal cells when they are placed in pure water? Water moves into them by osmosis, their vacuole swells up, and they become TURGID.
What happens to animal cell when placed in solution containing lower concentration of water than they contain? Water leaves the cell by osmosis, cell shrivels and becomes CRENATED.
What happens to plant cell when placed in solution containing lower concentration of water than they contain? Water leaves the cell by osmosis, cytoplasm pulls away from cell wall and cell becomes PLASMOLYSED
What happens to a cell placed in solution which has the same concentration of water as the cell? There is no water movement, cell remains the same weight and size.
What happens to the mass (weight) of the cell If the water is leaving the cell by osmosis? The mass (weight) reduces
What happens to the mass (weight) of the cell If the water is entering the cell by osmosis? The mass (weight) increases
What are the two main components of a cell membrane? phospholipid and protein
What is osmosis? Movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from high to low concentration of water.
What is a selectively permeable membrane? Membrane that allows small molecules to pass but does not allow large molecules to pass
Examples of small molecules that can pass through a selectively permeable membrane are? water, alcohol, simple sugars (eg. glucose),
Examples of large molecules that can not pass through a selectively permeable membrane are? DNA, proteins, fats, starch
What is the percentage water in a 70% ethanol solution? 70% ethanol solution contains 30% water.
Which solution has higher water concentration, 20% salt or 10% salt solution? 10% salt solution has higher water concentration
In what way do molecules move by diffusion? From high concentration to low concentration, down a concentration gradient.
In what way do molecules move by osmosis? From high concentration to low concentration, through a selectively permiable membrane, down a concentration gradient
In what way do molecules move by active transport? From low concentration to high concentration, through a selectively permiable membrane, up (or against) a concentration gradient.
What is active transport? The movement of molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration against a concentration gradient
Do diffusion and osmosis require energy? No, moving molecules down a concentration gradient does not require energy.
Does active transport require energy? Yes, moving molecules against a concentration gradient does require energy.
What is the name for types of transport not requiring energy? Passive transport
What is mitosis? Mitosis is a process of cell division in which a cell divides into two identical daughter cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes as the starting cell.
Why is it important that every new cell has exactly the same number of chromosomes as the original cell? It is important that every new cell has exactly the same number of chromosomes as the original so that no genetic information is lost.
What happens in stage 1 of mitosis? Chromosomes in the nucleus coil up, replicate and become visible on staining.
What happens in stage 2 of mitosis? Chromosomes now consist of two identical Chromatids joined by a Centromere
What happens in stage 3 of mitosis? Chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell and spindle fibres attach to chromatids. Nuclear membrane disappears.
What happens in stage 4 of mitosis? Spindle fibres pull chromatids towards opposite ends (poles) of the cell.
What happens in stage 5 of mitosis? Nuclear membranes reform. Cytoplasm divides.
What happens in stage 6 of mitosis? At stage 6 there are 2 diploid daughter cells containing the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. These are identical to each other and to the original cell.
What part of the cell controls cell division? The nucleus controlls cell division
What is the name for cells with a full set of chromosome pairs? A diploid cell
Why do cells need to divide? In unicellular organisms for reproduction. In multicellular organisms for growth and repair.
Created by: dr.prorocic