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Biology 111 Ch.1-5

Test 1

inductive reasoning specific observations to predict specific results
deductive reasoning general principles predict specific results
dalton atomic mass unit or amu, atomic theory
cation positive ion
anion negative ion
hydrogen bonds forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom
van de Waals interactions weak and occur only when atoms and molecues are very close together
cohesion hydrogens hold the substance together
adhesion clinging of one substance to another
colloid a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid
isomers compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties
structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
geometric isomers have the same covalent partnerships, but they differ in their spatial arrangements
cis isomer two Xs on the same side
trans isomer two Xs on opposite sides
enantiomers isomers that are mirror images of each other
hydroxyl group -OH;is polar and can form bonds with water molecules
hydroxyl group alchols;ex ethanol
carbonyl group >CO;found in sugars
ketones carbonyl group within a carbon skeletonex aceton
aldehydes carbonyl group at the end of the carbon skeletonex propanal
carboxyl group -COOH;has acidic properties and found in cells in ionized form
carboxylic acids organic acids
acetic acid gives vinegar its sour taste
amino group -NH2;acts as a baseex glycine
amines amino group compound
sulfhydryl group -SH, forms cross-linking bondsex cysetine
thiols sulfhydryl group
phosphate group -OPO3,2-;has potential to react with water;ex glycerol
methyl -CH3;addition affects expression of genes
carbohydrates serves as fuel and building material
monosaccharides glucose, fructose
disaccharides lactose, sucrose
polysaccharides cellulose, starch, glycogen, and chitin
monosaccharidesand disaccharides fuel; can be combined to polymers
polysaccharides strengthens cell walls;stores glucose for energy; strengthens exoskeletons and fungal cell walls
lipids diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
triacylglycerols glycerol + 3 fatty acids
triacylglycerols important energy source
phospholipids phosphate group + 2 fatty acids
phospholipids lipid bilayers of membranes
steroids four fused rings with attached chemical groups
steroids component of cell membranes; signaling molecules that travel through the body
proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions
proteins enzymes;structural;storage;transport
nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information
ester Formed by combining an acid and alcohol
alpha glucose starch
beta glucose cellulose
primary structure refering to the specific sequence of amino acids
How does the primary structure arise? the making of peptide bonds between amino acids through condensation
Secondary structure arises from hydrogen bonds that form as the polypeptide BACKBONE folds or coils
Tertiary structure Superimposed on Secondary, arises from the interactions of side groupsof amino acids along polypeptide
Quaternary structure Arises from the assembly of multiple polypeptide subunits
Created by: NightKhaki



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