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Diversity Of Life: 1

A deck of flashcards for Undergraduate Study of Biology. Source: Wikipedia

What did the Greek Philosopher Aristotle's [384-322 BC] contributed in the History of Biology? He distinguished about 500 species of birds, mammals and fishes and arranged the scale of nature from the simplest to the most complex organisms.
Definition of Theology. Theology is the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious ideas, but can also mean the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies.
What is Lamarckism or Lamarckian inheritance? The idea proposed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring (also known as inheritance of acquired characteristics or soft inheritance).
Definition of Taxonomy Derived from the Ancient Greek word "arrangement." It is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.
How many concepts of Lamarckism is published in Philosophie Zoologique (1809)? There are 2 concepts suggested by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in Philosophie Zooligique (1809).
What is stated in the First Law of Lamarckism according to Philosophie Zooligique (1809)? The first law states that the use or disuse of a body's structures would cause a growth or shrinkage in generations.
What is stated in the Second Law of Lamarckism according to Philosophie Zooligique (1809)? The second law states that changes acquired in characteristics may be inherited in the formation of a new species.
Charles Robert Darwin's background. An eminent geologist and naturalist who had because a popular author for his observations and theories on a 5 year voyage that had supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas.
HMS Beagle (1831-1836) A 5 year voyage where Charles Darwin had collected thousands of specimens and based his findings on.
What Island had shown the most visible comparisons of speciation according Darwin's observations during the voyage on the HMS Beagle? The Galápagos Islands.
Who contributed to Charles Robert Darwin's thinking? Charles Lyell (Uniformitarian ideas), George Cuvier (Species extinction), Thomas Maltus (Struggle for existence) and Jean Baptiste Lamarck (Rejecting Evolution by acquired characteristics).
The year Charles Robert Darwin wrote an unpublished essay regarding evolution? 1844.
Alfred Russel Wallace's Background. Father of biogeography. A British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. A prominent naturalist. Wrote an independent essay and sent to Charles Robert Darwin in 1856.
What year did the joint paper on the theory of evolution was published? 1858.
Who presented the ideas first and who further developed the theory of evolution? Alfred Russel Wallace presented his ideas first to Charles Robert Darwin, however Darwin further developed the theory to a greater extent and received credit as the main author.
When was 'On The Origin of Species' published? 1859.
Definition of Evolution. Evolution is the genetically-based heritable changes in one or more characteristics in a population through times- Price (1996).
When does evolution take in effect? Over-generations.
Microevolution Evolution through the changes in allele frequencies of a population over time.
Macroevolution A creation of a new species through a major pattern or trend change.
What are the 2 major components of evolution? Common Descent and Descent with change.
Common Descent Different species which arose from a common ANCESTOR; the more closely related, the more recent the common ancestor.
Descent with change Change in characteristics of a population through time which leads to the evolution of a new species.
What are the evidence of evolution? Fossil records, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, molecular biology and biogeography.
Fossil Records Fossil is any physical evidence of an organism that lived in the past, most commonly found in sedimentary rocks.
Why Fossil Records as Evolutionary evidence? Sequences can be seen, and due to its gradual appearances, it suggests fossils transitional forms.
Problems with Fossil Records as Evolutionary evidence? May be subjected to bias.
How does old and younger geological strata differ in fossil succession? Oldest geological strata have simpler fossils and younger strata have more complex fossils.
Why Comparative anatomy as Evolutionary evidence? It compares structural details such as Homologous structure and Analogous structures. Examples are the pentadactyl limb and the vestigial organ/structure (no longer useful structures).
Homologous structure Structures inherited from a common ancestor, but is similar in their underlying structure and found in different taxonomic groups.
Analogous structure Structures inherited not due to common ancestry, i.e. similar in form or mechanism. Known as convergent evolution whereby species with distant relations can have similar lifestyles and habits due to their adaptations to a certain diet.
Why Comparative Embryology as Evolutionary evidence? Embryology is the pattern of development. It does not vary except within certain limits. Similarities are often between closely related species (with a more recent common ancestry).
Why Molecular biology as Evolutionary evidence? Organisms often have the same basic biochemistry (particularly those more closely related).
What are examples of basic biochemistry? DNA/RNA(Viruses), use of L-amino acids instead of D-amino acids, biochemical pathways and similar individual genes.
Why Biogeography as Evolutionary evidence? Different areas/biogeographic regions have different diversities. The flora (plants) and fauna (animals) provide evidence for evolution. However, it often endemic (i.e. not found anywhere else in the world).
Explanation to the occurrence of Biogeography? Continental drifts.
Continental drifts The earth's crust is made of 12 tectonic plates, therefore Continental drift is the movement of the continents from the convection current.
Who proposed the earth was originally one huge super continent? Alfred Wegener.
The Origin of Continents (Die Entstehung der Kontinente) Published by Alfred Wegener in 1912. The book suggested that the earth was originally a c-shaped super continent named Pangaea. Pangaea were further broken into Laurasia (the north) and Gondwana (the south).
Created by: theecloud