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RNSG 1413

Chapter 14 Infection Prevention and control

HAI When a pt develops an infection that was not present or incubating at the time of admission to a health care setting.
Infection The invasion of a susceptible host (patient) by potentially harmful microorganism, resulting in a disease
Principal infecting agents Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and Protozoa
Colonization The presence and growth of microorganism within a host but without tissue invasion or damage- does not cause infection or disease
Disease or infection results only if Pathogens grow or multiply and alter normal tissue function
Communicable disease An infectious disease transmitted directly from one person to another and is considered contagious
Symptomatic Pathogens multiply and cause clinical sign and symptoms
Asymptomatic Clinical signs and symptoms are not present.
Hepatitis C Most efficiently transmitted through the the direct entry of blood into the skin through a precutaneous exposure, even if the source (PT) is asymptomatic
Infectious agent Pathogen
Reservoir A place where microorganisms survive, multiply, and wait to transfer to a susceptible host
Portal of exit They exit through skin, mucous membranes, respiratory tract, GI tract, Urinary tract, reproductive tract and blood
Mode of Transmission Vehicle (ex. Sneezing or coughing)
Host susceptibility Factors include age, nutritional status, presence of chronic disease, trauma, and smoking
Chain of infection Process resulting in an infection is referred
Virulence Ability to produce disease
Development of an infection depends on Number of microorganisms present, their virulence or their ability to produce disease, their ability to enter and survive In a host
Factors that increases a pt's risk for immunocompromise include Cancer chemotherapy, organ anti rejection medication, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Common reservoirs Human and animals, insects, food, wanted and organic matter on inanimate surfaces
Frequent reservoirs for HAIs include Health care workers (Hands), pts body excretions and secretions, equipment, and the health care environment
Direct transmission Physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person.
Indirect transmission When an infected person sneezes or coughs, sending infectious droplets into the air. If healthy people inhale the infectious droplets, or if the contaminated droplets land directly in their eyes, nose or mouth, they risk becoming ill.
Intact skin Protects against pathogens. Skin and mucous membranes act as a protective covering.
Linings of the nasal passages Act to prevent organisms from entering into the lungs
Inflammation The cellular response of the body to injury or infection.
Signs of inflammation Swelling, redness, heat, pain or tenderness, and loss of function in the affected body part
Systemic inflammation include Fever, leukocyosis, malaise, anorexia nausea, vomiting, and lymph node enlargement.
Antigen A foreign material
Exogenous infection Microorganisms found outside the individual such as salmonella, clostridium tetanus, and aspergillosis. They do not exist in normal flora
Endogenous infection Flora becomes altered and overgrowth occurs.
Asepsis Absence of disease-producing microorganisms. The two types of aseptic technique are medical asepsis and surgical asepsis
Medical asepsis (clean technique) Procedures used to reduce the number of microorganisms and to prevent the spread of microorganisms (i.e. handwashing)
Surgical asepsis (sterile technique) Procedures to eliminate all microorganisms (i.e. sterilization).
Created by: pdimple