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Molecules to Metabol

TermDefinition
Elements of Nature C=carbon O=oxygen S=sulfur N=nitrogen P=phosphorus H=hydrogen
Carbon Bonding carbon needs to become stable/ it has 4 places to bond to called valence electrons
Valence electron Outer shell electrons that give the element its charge (positive or negative).
Covalent bonds Sharing electrons, ex: carbon always share, always in covalent bond.
Absolute Specificity the enzyme will catalyze only one reaction
Denature when an enzyme breaks down and doesn't work
catalysts speed up the reaction by lowering the activation energy
Enzymes Catalysts usually made of protein that temporarily bind to one or more of the reactants of the reaction. they are specific to the reactions they catalyze making them good for diagnoses and research
Monomer small molecules that can join together to form a chain
Polymer a chain of 2 or more Monomers
RNA ribonucleic acid
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
Nucleic Acids macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that carry genetic information such as DNA and RNA/universal in all living things and found in all cells and viruses
More on Proteins About 100,000 different proteins in the body made up of amino acids /each has a different structure and different function in the body /in protein foods the proteins break down to amino acids which are absorbed into our bodies
Polymerization the process of joining smaller compounds together to form larger compounds
Macromolecules must be broken into groups to study/are separated based on their structure/are considered to be biomolecules (bio= life)
Carbohydrates compounds made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen/ratio is usually 1:2:1 (C1:2H:1Oxygen)/main source of energy for most living organisma/plants use for structural support/our bodies break them down into sugars
Simple Sugars carbohydrates that contain only one sugar unit (monosaccharides) or two sugar units (disaccharides)/have sweet taste/break down in the body to release ATP
most common Monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Glucose is the most common sugar stored in the human body for energy. Glucose and fructose have the same chemical formula (C6H12O6)but differ in structure.
Cellulose a polymer of the monosaccharide glucose/ differs from starch and glycogen/known as plant fiber, it can't be digested by humans/some animals (cows, termites) can digest it/in plants used as a structural molecule to add support to leaves, stem, etc.
Lipids (fats) fats are compounds known as lipids found in the body that are hydrophobic (insoluble in water)/fats are known as triglycerides/fats serve as a storage system and reserve supply of energy/serve as insulation to allow body heat to be conserved.
Lipids continued... fats line and protect delicate internal organs from physical damage/ fats can be converted to other lipids that serve as the main structural material of the cell membranes./
Proteins Large molecules made up of hundreds or thousands of amino acids. Proteins are polymers of amino acids.
Structural Proteins form most of the solid material of the human body/keratin and collagen are the main component of skin, hair, muscles, tendons
Functional Proteins carry out activities & functions in the human body/hemoglobin is in red blood cells and helps transport oxygen/myosin occurs in the muscle tissue and allows muscles to contract/insulin is a functional protein that regulates the storage of sugar glucose
More on Proteins About 100,000 different proteins in the body made up of amino acids /each has a different structure and different function in the body /in protein foods the proteins break down to amino acids which are absorbed into our bodies
Nucleic Acids macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that carry genetic information such as DNA and RNA/universal in all living things and found in all cells and viruses
List 3 monosaccharide glucose, fructose, galactose
List 3 disaccharide sucrose (glu+fruc), maltose (glu+glu), lactose (glu +lactose)
List 3 polysaccharide Chitin, cellulose, starch, glycogen
List two sections that makes up lipid glycerol and fatty acid
List three types of lipid triglyceride, phospholipid, cholesterol
State monomer of protein amino acid
State monomer of nucleic acid Nucleotide
List 3 sections of nucleotide sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base
List two types of Nucleic acid DNA and RNA
DNA versus RNA double versus single/ T versus U/ deoxyribose versus ribose
dehydration synthesis (condensation) Process in which water is removed from two molecules, to join them together as one. (anabolic).
hydrolysis " cut water", process in which water is split and added into a compound to break it in pieces (catabolic)
Created by: ajebailey