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Microbiology Exam 1

Microbiology- UALR- Dr. Ali

The structure of DNA was discovered by __________ James Watson and Francis Crick (1953)
Probably the most studied microbe: Bacteria
Joseph Lister was credited with the implementation of ________ technique. Aseptic technique (19th century)
Collectively microbes constitute roughly _____% of the earth's biomass. 60%
One of the most significant benefits that microbes provide is the ability to synthesize _____ DNA
Who developed the compound microscope? British Scientist Robert Hooke (17th century)
The "father of modern microbiology" Louis Pasteur
Because microbes reproduce relatively quickly they are particularly useful in ________ studies. Genetic
Some of Louis Pasteur's contributions: Swan-necked flask, pasturization, the fermention process
Earth is the planet of _______ Bacteria
Microbiology is: The study of microbes. The study of organisms so small you need a microscope to study them.
A type of virus containing a nucleic acid and lacking a protein covering. Viroid
The theory that states that microorganisms can arise from non-living material. Spontaneous Generation Theory
2 dimensions of the scope of Microbiology: The study of the kinds of microbes and the kind of work that microbiologists do.
The vast majority of microorganisms are directly or indirectly __________. Beneficial
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann formulated what? The Cell Theory
The supposed first microbiology course was taught by ________________ ______________ Robert Koch
Robert Koch invented the technique to prepare _____________ _______________ Pure cultures
Robert Koch worked as a _________________ for most of his casreer. Physician
Who developed the simple microscope? Anton Von Leeuwenhoek (17th-18th century)
The tiniest of all microbes: Virus
Compaired to other organisms, microbes have relatively _________________ structures. Simple
Less than _____% of known microbes cause disease. 1%
___________ ____________ is credited with seeing the first living organism "animalecules." Anton Von Leeuwenhoek
The theory that states that microorganisms can invade other organisms and cause disease. The Germ Theory of Disease
Bacteria do not have a __________ Nucleus
Pasteur aided greatly in the development of ______________ Vaccines
The "swan-necked" flask is associated with ______________ _______________ Louis Pasteur
Most microbes are _____cellular uni-
Francesco Redi devised what experiment to disprove spontaneous generation? Meat in jars
What theory states that cells are the fundamental unit of life Cell theory
A virus that has protein and is lacking nucleic acid: Prion
The smallest chemical unit of matter Atom
2 or more atoms chemically combined: Molecule
The most common elements in all forms of life: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Atomic Number The number of protons in an atom
Atomic Weight Total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Ion An atom or molecule that had gained or lost one or more electrons.
Acid A hydrogen ion donor (accepts H+ ions in solution)
Base A proton acceptor; hydroxyl ion donor (releases OH- ions in solution)
Anion An ion that had gained an electron, becoming negatively charged.
Isotope Atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons.
The key element that all life is made up of: Carbon
Particles too large to form true solutions Colloids
Matter that is composed of one kind of atom Element
Protons and Neutrons are located where? Nucleus
The mass of a proton or neutron is almost exactly equal to _____ 1 AMU
Atoms of molecules are held together by _________ bonds. Chemical
Ionic Bond Formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions
Covalent Bond When atoms share pairs of electrons
Mole Same as "gram molecular weight," the weight of a substance in grams equal to the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule of the substance.
Radioisotopes Unstable isotopes that emmit subatomic particles and radiation.
Atoms of molecules are held together by what kind of bonds? Chemical
Catabolism The breaking down of molecules (the release of energy)
Anabolism The synthesis of larger molecules (uses energy)
Water is a __________ compound and has a high ___________ __________ Polar; surface tension
A pH of "7" is __________ Neutral
A pH above "7" is ________ Basic
A pH below "7" is ________ Acidic
The study of Carbon-containing compounds Organic Chemistry
LIpids are insoluable in ________ Water
Lipids are soluable in _________ Non-polar solvents
Fats consist of ______ and _______ ________ Glycerol and fatty acids
Phospholipids contain a phosphate group instead of a _________ __________ Fatty acid
Steroids have a complex ______-ring structure 4
Proteins consist of ______ ________ linked by ________ bonds amino acids; peptide
Enzymes increase the rate of _______ _______ in living organisms Chemical Reactions
The simplest of carbohydrates Monosaccharides
The body's primary use for carbohydrates is ________ Energy
Monosaccharides can form together to form ___________ & __________ Disaccharides; polysaccharides
Nucleotides consist of what three parts? Nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups
Nulceic Acids consist of lon polymers of nucleotides called ____________________ Polynucleotides
The 2 nucleic acids that are found in living organisms Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) and Deoxyridonucleic Acid (DNA)
Enzymes are protein _________ Catalysts
Viruses have either ______ or ____ but not both. DNA or RNA
Functional Group The part of a molecule that generally participates in chemical reactions as a unit and that gives the molecule some of its chemical properties.
Oxidation The addition of oxygen or the removal of H+ ions or electrons in a substance
Reduction The removal of oxygen or the addition of H+ ions or electrons in a substance.
Monosaccharides consist of: A carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and one other functional group.
Several monosaccharides are _________ and they have the same __________ ____________ Isomers; molecular formula (but different structures and properties)
The most abundant monosaccharide Glucose
Monosaccharides can be reduced to become ___________ & _________ Doxy sugars and sugar alcohols
Diasaccharides are formed when 2 monosaccharides are connected by the removal of __________ (dehydration synthesis) _________ bond. Water; glycosidic
Glycosidic Bond A sugar alcohol/sugar linkage
Polysacchairdes are formed when many ___________ are linked together. Monosaccharides
Polymer A long chain of repeating units
Triacylglycerol A fat formed when 3 fatty acids are bonded to glycerol.
The smaller the distance between objects distinguished, the __________ the resolving power. Greater
A numerical measure ofthe resolution that can be obtained with a specific lens Resolving Power
The measurement from crest to crest or trough to trough Wavelength
Resolving power is dependent on the ________ source Light
Constant value for a particular lens Numerical Aperture
The ability of a microscope to differentiate between two distinct structures Resolution
Micrometer 10^-6
Nanometer 10^-9
Immersion oil is used to prevent loss of ______ resulting from refraction. Light
Total magnification is ________ lens magnifying power, multiplied by ocular lens magnifying power. Objective
____________ light is used in Florescence Microscopy Ultraviolet
Electron Microscopy uses a beam of _________ instead of a beam of light. Electrons
Transmission Electron Microscopy is used to see the _________ structures of microbes. Internal
Scanning Electron Microscopy is used to see the __________ structures of microbes. External/ Surface
Cationic dyes are _______ Basic/positive
Anionic dyes are _______ Acidic/negative
Negatively charged bacterial cell walls bind with _________ dye. Cationic
Prokaryotic cells do not have a defined _____________ Nucleus
Eukaryotic cells have a _____ nucleus containing _______ True; DNA
Cell walls provide a characteristic ________; they also prevent the cell from ______ Shape; bursting
3 Bacterial cell wall types: Gram positive; Gram negative; Acid-fast
Instead of a true nucleus, bacteria have a _________ ________ Nuclear Region
The bacteria's nuclear region is composed primarily of: DNA (some RNA and protein)
Ribosomes consist of __________ and __________ RNA and protein
Flagellum are made up of what protein? Flagellin
Bacteria with one single flagellum Monotirchous
Bacteria with one flagellum at each end Amphetrichous
Bacteria with two or more flagella at each end Lophotrichous
Bacteria that have flagella all over Peritrichous
Bacteria with no flagella Atrichous
Chemotaxis The movement of bacteria in response to a chemical
Phototaxis The movement of bacteria in response to light
Positive Chemotaxis Movement of a bacterium toward a chemical
Negative Chemotaxis Movement of a bacterium away from a chemical
Pili help bacterium _________ to nutrition sources Attach
The type of pili that is associated with bacterial reproduction Conjugation Pili
Eukaryotic cells are more/less complex than prokaryotic cells. More
Psudopodia is the movement of ____________ Cytoplasm
Cell membranes are ____________. (meaning they only allow select material in and out) Semipermeable
Type of cell that have a nucleus and membrane-enclosed structure: Eukaryotic Cell
Carbohydrates are bonded by: Glycosidic Bonds
Lipids are bonded by: Ester Bonds
Amino Acids are bonded by: Peptide Bonds
Nucleic Acid/ Nulceotides are bonded by: Phosphodiester Linkage
Type of cell that lacks nucleus and other membrane-enclosed structures: Prokaryotic Cell
Where is DNA located in eukaryotic cells? In membrane enclosed nucleus
Where is DNA located in prokaryotic cells? In nuclear region
List the 3 domains: Archaea Bacteria Eukarya
Viruses are _____________ Acellualr
Bacteria have a (large or small) surface to volume ratio? Large
Spherical bacteria Coccus
Rod-like bacteria Bacillus
"comma- shaped" bacteria Vibrio
"wavy-shaped" bacteria Spirillum
"corkscrew-shaped" bacteria Spirochete
Structurally, bacterium consists of what? 1. Cell membrane 2. Cytoplasm 3. Exteranl Structures (capsules, flagella, and pili)
What nucleotides are found in DNA? Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine (binding: AT=weaker bond and GC=stronger bond)
What nucleotides are found in RNA? Adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine (binding: AU and GC)
The _________ _________ lies outside the cell membrane. Cell wall
2 Important functions of cel wall: 1. Maintains cell shape 2. prevents cell from burstin when fluid enters in
The single most important component of the bacterial cell wall: Peptidoglycan
Additional molecule found in walls of Gram-Positive bacteria: Teichoic Acid
Teichoic Acid in the Gram-Positive bacterial cell wall probably serves as a passageway for movement of _____ into and out of cells. Ions
Outermembranes are primarily found in what kind of bacteria? Gram-negative
Lipopolysacchride (LPS) is also called: Endotoxin
Part of the outer layer that can be used to identify Gram-Negative Bacteria: LPS
Lipopolysacchride consists of: Ploysacchrides and Lipid A
NADH produces how many ATP? 3 ATP
FADH produces how many ATP? 2 ATP
GTP produces how many ATP? 1 ATP
Created by: BabyNurse17