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SLS Bio11 MicrobioMD

SLS Bio11 Microbiology MD

TermDefinition
antigen any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it, may be a foreign substance from the environment, such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or pollen, may also be formed inside the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
host cell an animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives, a living cell in which a virus multiplies.
lymphocyte a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system.
lysogenic cycle one of two cycles of viral reproduction. Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterium's cytoplasm.
lytic cycle one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle, results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
membranous envelope The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The nuclear envelope has pores that allow the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus. Also called nuclear membrane.
mucous membrane a lining of mostly endodermal origin. It consists of an epithelium (a layer, or layers of epithelial cells) and an underlying lamina propria of loose connective tissue.
nucleic acid core contains codes for viral proteins, and can insert itself into the genome of the bacterial host to take over its function
phagocytic white blood cell cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
primary line of defense includes physical and chemical barriers that are always ready and prepared to defend the body from infection. These include your skin, tears, mucus, cilia, stomach acid, urine flow, ‘friendly’ bacteria and white blood cells called neutrophils.
protein capsid the protein shell of a virus, consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers 3-dimensional morphological subunits, which may correspond to individual proteins, are called capsomeres encloses the geneticof the virus
RNA a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
secondary line of defence The cells involved are white blood cells (leukocytes), which seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances.There are different types of leukocytes. Each of these cell types has a specific function, but they all work together to protect you.
tertiary line of defence The tertiary line of defence is your antibodies, it comes into play once the pathogens have already crossed the primary and secondary lines of defence. It requires an innate and acquired immunity.
viral specificity viral specificity means that a virus is selective in the organisms it infects, the type of cells and the disease it produces.
white blood cell AKA leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders, from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell.
aerobic respiration the process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen
antibiotic a medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms
antiseptic denoting substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing microorganisms.
bacteria a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
binary fission a form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotes (bacteria and archaebacteria) and some organelles within eukaryotic organisms.
classification the assignment of organisms to groups within a system of categories distinguished by structure, origin, etc. The usual series of categories is phylum (or, especially in botany, division), class, order, family, genus, species, and variety.
conjugation he temporary union of two bacteria or unicellular organisms for the exchange of genetic material, the fusion of two gametes, especially when they are of a similar size. the combination of two substances
disinfectant a chemical liquid that destroys bacteria.
ecological role the niche is the role that virus has in it environment, where it lives and what it does.
fermentation the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat.
motility the ability to be able to move
mutate/mutation a permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence
photosynthesis process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.
prokaryote microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
resistant/resistance Antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon. When an antibiotic is used, bacteria that can resist that antibiotic have a greater chance of survival than those that are "susceptible."
Created by: 100000734507330