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Anatomy- Section 2.9

The Respiratory System

The respiratory system provides a passage for ____, a gas necessary for energy production, to enter the body and for ____ ____, a waste product of the body's metabolism, to exit. oxygen, carbon dioxide
____ requires a patent, open airway as well as adequate respiratory function. Respiration
____ is the exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment. Respiration
Upper Airway Components: ____ ____, ____ ____, ____ Nasal cavity Oral cavity, Pharynx
The maxillary, frontal, nasal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones compromise the lateral and superior walls of the ____ ____. nasal cavity
The ____ ____ is the cartilage that separates the right and left nasal cavities. nasal septum
The ____ is an air cavity that conducts fluid from the eustachian tubes and tear ducts to and from he nasopharynx. sinus
The ____ help reduce the overall weight of the head and are thought to assist in heating, purifying, and moistening inhaled air. sinuses
The sinuses are air-filled cavities that are lined with a ____ ____. mucous membrane
Fractures of the ____ ____ (____) can occasionally cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to leak from the cranial cavity into the nasal cavity. upper sinuses
A ____ ____ is a tube that connects the ear with the nasal cavity. Eustachian tube
The ____ ____ allow for equalization of pressure on each side of the tympanic membrane. Eustachian tubes
The ____ ____ is a narrow tube that carries into the nasal cavity tears and debris that have drained from the eye which an cause the nose to run when someone cries. nasolacrimal duct
____ ____ are tissues lining body cavities that communicate with the air. Mucous membranes
____ ____ usually contain mucus secreting cells. Mucous membranes
____ is a slippery secretion that lubricates and protects airway surfaces. Mucus
The ____, a large muscle on the bottom of the oral cavity, is the most common airway obstruction. tongue
The ____ bone is unique, it is the only bone in the axial skeleton that does not articulate with any other bone. hyoid
The ____ is a muscular tube that extends vertically from the back of the soft palate to the superior aspect of the esophagus. pharynx
Regions of the Pharynx: ____, ____, ____ Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
A ____ ____ is a mechanism that stimulates retching, or striving to vomit, when the soft palate is touched. gag reflex
The ____ is the depression between the epiglottis and the base of the tongue. vallecula
____ ____ is passing a tube into the trachea to protect and maintain the airway and to permit medication administration and deep suctioning. Endotracheal intubation
The ____ is the complex structure that joins the pharynx with the trachea. larynx
The ____ is the liplike opening between the vocal cords. glottis
The ____ ____ is pressure applied in a posterior direction to the anterior cricoid cartilage to occlude the esophagus. Sellick maneuver
____ is inhaling foreign material, such as vomitus, into the lungs. Aspiration
The ____ ____ is a membrane between he cricoid and thyroid cartilages of the larynx. cricothyroid membrane
Lower Airway Components: ____, ____, ____, ____ ____, ____ Trachea, Bronchi, Alveoli, Lung parenchyma, Pleura
The ____ is a tube that connects the larynx to the mainstem bronchi. trachea
The trachea is ____ to ____ centimeters long. 10, 12
At the ____, the trachea divides or ____, into the right and left bronchi. carina, bifurcates
The ____ are tubes from the trachea into the lungs. bronchi
____ are microscopic air sacs where most oxygen and carbon dioxide gas exchanges take place. Alveoli
____ is an alveolar collapse. Atelactasis
The ____ lung has three lobes, the upper lobe, the middle lobe, and the lower lobe; the ____ lung, which shares thoracic space with the heart, has only two lobes, the upper lobe and the lower lobe. right, left
The ____ are the principle or essential parts of an organ. parenchyma
The ____ is a membranous connective tissue covering the lungs. pleura
The pleura consists of two layers, ____ and ____. visceral, parietal
The____ pleura envelopes the lungs and does not contain nerve fibers. visceral
The ____ pleura lines the thoracic cavity and contains nerve fibers. parietal
The potential space between the visceral and parietal layers, called the ____ ____, usually holds a small amount of fluid that reduces friction between the pleural layers during respiration. pleural space
In pediatrics, the airways is smaller in all aspects, particularly the ____ of the openings and passageways. diameters
In pediatrics, in the pharynx, the jaw is ____ and the tongue is relatively ____. smaller, larger
The ____ lies more superior and anterior in children and is funnel-shaped because the ____ ____ is undeveloped. larynx, cricoid cartilage
Before the age of ____, the cricoid cartilage I the narrowest part f the airway. 10
The ribs and the cartilage of the pediatric thoracic cage are ____ and more pliable. softer
Infants and children tend to rely more on their ____ for breathing. diaphragm
____ is the exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment. Respiration
____ is the mechanical process that moves air into and out of the lungs. Ventilation
____ ____depends on changes in pressure within the thoracic cavity. Pulmonary ventilation
____mL of inspired air - ____mL occupying the conducting pathways 'dead space' = ____mL reaching the alveoli 500mL-150mL=350mL
During each cardiac cycle the heart pumps as much blood to the ____ as it pumps to the peripheral tissues. lungs
____ ____ is the pressure exerted by each component of a gas mixture. Partial pressure
The ____ ____ of a gas is its percentage of the mixture's total pressure. partial pressure
Oxygen (PaO2) = ____ torr (average = ____ - ____) 100 torr (average = 80-100)
Carbon dioxide (PaCO2) = ____ torr (average = ____ - ____) 40 torr (average = 35-45)
____ is alveolar partial pressure. PA
____ is arterial partial pressure. Pa
____ is the movement of a gas rom an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, attempting to reach equilibrium. Diffusion
Diffusion transfers ____ between the lungs and the blood and between the blood and the peripheral tissues. gases
Carbon dioxide is ____ times more soluble in water than oxygen and readily crosses the pulmonary capillary membranes. 21
In the peripheral tissues, the gradient (direction of diffusion) for CO2 is from the tissue where its concentration is ____, to the capillary blood, where its concentration is ____. high, low
Oxygen diffuses into the blood plasma, where most of it combines with hemoglobin and is measured as ____ ____ (____). oxygen saturation (SpO2)
The oxygen that does not diffuse into the blood plasma is ____ in the blood and is measured as the ____. dissolved, PaO2
Hemoglobin approaches ____% saturation when the PaO2 of dissolved oxygen reaches ____ to ____ torr. 100, 90 to 100
Decreased hemoglobin concentration, inadequate alveolar ventilation, decreased diffusion across the pulmonary membrane, and ventilation/perfusion mismatch are factors that can affect ____ ____ in the blood. oxygen concentrations
____ is the reduction in breathing rate and depth. Hypoventilation
____ is the accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity. Pneumothorax
____ is the accumulation in the pleural cavity of blood or fluid containing blood. Hemothorax
A ____ ____ is a blood clot that travels to the pulmonary circulation and hinders oxygenation of the blood. pulmonary embolism
The blood transports carbon dioxide mainly in the form of ____ ____ (____). bicarbonate ion (HCO-3)
The ____ is the concentration of oxygen in inspired air. FiO2
Hyperventilation ____ CO2 levels. lowers
Fever, muscle exertion, shivering, and metabolic processes resulting in the formation of metabolic acids can cause ____ CO2 production. increased
Decreased alveolar ventilation causes ____ CO2 elimination. decreased
Increased CO2 levels (____) are usually treated by ____ the rate and/or volume of ventilation and by correcting the underlying cause. hypercarbia, increasing
____ is the excessive pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood. Hypercarbia
The ____ ____ is the number of times a person breaths in 1 minute. respiratory rate
We can ____ override our involuntary respirations until physical and chemical mechanisms signal the ____ ____'s respiratory centers to involuntary provide impulses and correct any breathing irregularities. voluntarily, nervous system
The main respiratory center lies in the ____ ____ in the brainstem. medulla oblongata
Various ____within the medulla initiate impulses that result in respiration. neurons
If the medulla fails to initiate respiration, an additional control center in the ____, called the apneustic center, assumes respiratory control t ensure the continuation of respirations. pons
A third control center, the pneumotaxic center, also in the pons, controls ____. expiration
The ____-____ ____ prevents overexpansion of the lungs; the process of the stretch receptors stopping firing as the stretch decreases. Hering-Breuer reflex
Any ____ in PCO2 will ____ CSF pH, which will in turn stimulate the control chemoreceptors to increase respiration. increase, decrease
____ PaCO2 levels will ____CSF pH, in turn decreasing chemoreceptor stimulation and slowing respiratory activity. Low, raise
____ is decreased blood oxygen level. Hypoxemia
____ ____ is the mechanism that increases respiratory stimulation when blood oxygen falls and inhibits respiratory stimulation when blood oxygen climbs. Hypoxic drive
____ is the absence of breathing. Apnea
____ (decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the blood) is a profound stimulus of respiration in a normal individual. Hypoxemia
People with chronic respiratory disease such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis tend to retain ____and, therefore, have a chronically elevated ____. CO2, PaCO2
Fever, emotion, pain, hypoxia, acidosis, stimulant drugs, depressant dugs, and sleep can affect ____ ____. respiratory rate
____ ____ ____ is the maximum lung capacity. Total lung capacity
____ ____ is the average volume of gas inhaled or exhaled in one respiratory cycle. Tidal volume
____ ____ ____ is the amount of gas in the tidal volume that remains in the air passageways. Dead space volume
____ ____ is the amount of gas in the tidal volume that reaches the alveoli for gas exchange. Alveolar volume
____ ____ is the amount o as inhaled and exhaled in 1 minute. Minute volume
____ ____ ____ is the amount of gas that reaches the alveoli for gas exchange in one minute. Alveolar minute volume
____ ____ ____ (____) is the amount of air that can be maximally inhaled after a normal inspiration. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
____ ____ ____ (____) is the amount of air that can be maximally exhaled after a normal expiration. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
____ ____ (____) is the amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of maximal expiration. Residual volume (RV)
____ ____ ____ (____) is the volume of gas that remains in the lungs at the end of normal expiration. Functional residual capacity (FRC)
____ ____ ____ (____) is the amount of air that can be maximally expired after maximal inspiration. Forced expiratory volume (FEV)
Total lung capacity in the average adult male is approximately ____ liters.
Tidal volume in the average adult male is approximately ____ mL. 500
Dead space volume in the average adult male is approximately ____ mL. 150
Alveolar volume in the average adult male is approximately ____ mL. 350
Created by: whit_1348