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Anatomy- Section 2.6

The Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
The ____ ____ is the body's principal control system. nervous system
The ____ ____ ____ is the brain and the spinal cord. central nervous system
The ____ ____ ____ is the part of the nervous system that extends throughout the body and is comprised of the cranial nerves arising from the brain and the peripheral nerves arising from the spinal cord. peripheral nervous system
The ____ ____ ____'s subdivisions are the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. peripheral nervous system
The ____ ____ ____ is the part of the nervous system controlling voluntary bodily functions. somatic nervous system
The ____ ____ ____ is the part of the nervous system controlling involuntary bodily functions. autonomic nervous system
The ____ ____ ____ is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. autonomic nervous system
The ____ ____ ____ is a division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for stressful situations. sympathetic nervous system
____ ____ ____ actions include increased heart rate and dilation of the pupils. Sympathetic nervous system
____ ____ ____ actions are mediated by the nerotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Sympathetic nervous system
The ____ ____ ____ is a division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for controlling vegetative functions. parasympathetic nervous system
____ ____ ____ actions include decreased heart rate and constriction of bronchioles and pupils. Parasympathetic nervous system
____ ____ ____ actions are mediated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Parasympathetic nervous system
A ____ is a nerve cell. neuron
A ____ is the fundamental component of the nervous system. neuron
A ____ is a substance that is released from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron on excitation and that travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. neurotransmitter
Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are examples of a ____. neurotransmitter
Central Nervous System: ____ and ____ Brain, Spinal cord
Protective membranes called the ____ cover the entire central nervous system. meninges
The are ___ layers of meninges that pad, or cushion, the brain and spinal cord. three
The durable, outermost meninges layer is referred to as the ____ ____. dura matter
The middle meninges layer is a weblike structure known as the ____ ____. arachnoid matter
The innermost meninges layer, directly overlying the central nervous system, is called the ____ ___. pia matter
The ____ consists of the cerebrum and the diencephalon. forebrain
The ____ is in the anterior and middle area of the cranium and is responsible for all sensory and motor actions. cerebrum
The ____ contains two hemispheres and is joined by a structure called the corpus callosum. cerebrum
The ____ is the seat of intelligence, learning, analysis, memory, and language. cerebrum
The ____ ____ is the outermost layer of the cerebrum. cerebral cortex
The ____ is covered by the cerebrum and sometimes known as the interbrain which is responsible for many involuntary actions such as temperature regulation, sleep, water balance, stress response, and emotions. diencephalon
Inside the ____ are the thalamus, hypothalamus (which is connected to the pituitary gland), and the limbic system; it plays a major role in regulating the autonomic nervous system. diencephalon
The mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and the medulla oblongata form the ____. brainstem
The brainstem and the cerebellum together constitute the ____. hindbrain
The ____ or ____ is located between the diencephalon and the pons and is responsible for certain aspects of motor coordination. mesencephalon, midbrain
The ____ or ____ is the major region controlling eye movement. mesencephalon, midbrain
Between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata is the ____ which contains connections between the brain and the spinal cord. pons
The ____ ____ is located between the pons and the spinal cord which marks the division between the spinal cord and the brain. medulla oblongata
Located in the ____ ____ are major centers for controlling respiration, cardiac activity, and vasomotor activity. medulla oblongata
The ____ is located in the posterior fossa of the cranial cavity and consists of two hemispheres closely related to the brainstem and higher centers. cerebellum
The ____ coordinates fine motor movement, posture, equilibrium, and muscle tone. cerebellum
The ____ ____ ____ (____) operates in the lateral portion of the medulla, pons, and especially the midbrain. reticular activating system (RAS)
The ____ ____ ____ (____) sends impulses to and receives impulses from the cerebral cortex. It is a diffuse system of interlacing nerve cells responsible for maintaining consciousness and the ability to respond to stimuli. reticular activating system (RAS)
The ____ ____ is the central nervous system pathway responsible for transmitting sensory input from the body to the brain and for conducting motor impulses from the brain to the body muscles and organs, spinal cord
The ____ ____ ____ (____) send and receives messages from various parts of the brain. reticular activating system (RAS)
The ____ ____ ____ is a deep crease along the vertical surface of the spinal cord that divides the cord into right and left halves. anterior medial fissure
The ____ ____ ____ is the shallow longitudinal groove along the dorsal surface of the spinal cord. posterior medial sulcus
____ ____ are areas in the central nervous system dominated by nerve cell bodies. Gray matter
The ____ ____ is the central portion of the spinal cord. gray matter
____ ____ is the material that surrounds grey matter in the spinal cord. White matter
____ ____ is made up largely of axons. White matter
____ ____ are bundles of axons along the spinal cord that transmit signals from the body to the brain. Ascending tracts
____ ____ are bundles of axons along the spinal cord that transmit signals from the brain to the body. Descending tracts
____ ____ are 31 pairs of nerves that originate along the spinal cord from anterior and posterior nerve roots. Spinal nerves
A ____ is a topographical region of the body surface innervated by one nerve root. dermatome
A ____ is the muscle and tissue of the body innervated by a spinal nerve root. myotone
____ ____ are twelve pairs of nerves that extend from the lower surface of the brain. Cranial nerves
Peripheral Nervous System: _____ (____) and ____ (____) -____ -____ Voluntary (Somatic), Involuntary (Autonomic) -Sympathetic - Parasympathetic
____ ____ are afferent nerves that transmit sensations involved in touch, pressure, pain, temperature, and position (proprioception) Somatic sensory
____ ____ are efferent fibers that carry impulses to skeletal (voluntary) muscles. Somatic motor
____ (____) ____ are afferent tracts that transmit sensations from the visceral organs such as a full bladder or the need to defecate are mediated by these fibers. Visceral (autonomic) sensory
____ (____) ____ are efferent fibers that exit the central nervous system and branch to supply nerves to the involuntary cardiac muscle and smooth muscle of the viscera (organs) and to the glands. Visceral (autonomic) motor
____ ____ are groups of autonomic nerve cells located outside the central nervous system. Autonomic ganglia
____ ____ are nerve fibers that extend from the central nervous system to the autonomic ganglia. Preganglionic nerves
____ ____ are nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to the target tissues. Postganglionic nerves
Types of Sympathetic Receptors: ____ -____ (____), -____ (____), -____ (____), -____ (____), ____ Adrenergic -alpha1 (a1) -alpha2 (a2) -beta1 (b1) -beta2 (b2) Dopaminergic
Cranial Nerves Containing Parasympathetic Fibers: ____, ____, ____, ____ III, VII, IX, X
Created by: whit_1348