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Nat5 life on earth

Nat5 Speciation

What is variation in a population due to? To the existance of different alleles.
How did different alleles come about? By the process of mutation.
What is speciation? Speciation is the formation of two or more species from 1 original species.
Give an example of speciation. Darwin’s Finches in the Galapagos Islands are an example of speciation.
What is a definition of a species? Organisms of the same species can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
What are the steps of speciation? Speciation is a three step process: isolating mechanism, mutation, natural selection.
What is the role of isolating mechanism in speciation? Isolating mechanisms prevent gene flow between two sub populations.
Name 3 types of isolating mechanism. Geographical, Ecological and Reproductive.
How do mutations occur? Randomly and at low frequency.
How do mutations occur on either side of an isolating barrier? Mutations are random and therefore occur only on 1 side of the barrier OR different mutations occur either side of the barrier.
How does natural selection affect populations? Selection pressure causes those with a selective advantage to survive, reproduce and pass on their successful alleles, the weaker organisms don't and so die out.
Give one example of a natural selection in insects. Peppered moth. The peppered moth died out as the black moth had camouflage as a selective advantage
Give an example of a characteri offering natural selection advantage in humans. Human skin colour with darker skin caused by melanin pigment offering a selective advantage in warmer climates.
Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a product of natural selection.
Created by: dr.prorocic