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8th Science U3

Introduction to Chemistry

TermDefinition
nucleus an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
protons a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element.
electrons a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
neutrons a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom
electron cloud a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found.
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element.
mass number the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
periodic table an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers such that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group.
chemical symbol a one-, two-, or three-letter abbreviation of the name of an element
average atomic mass the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element
metal an element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well.
nonmetal an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
metalloid an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals.
group a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties.
period a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
chemical bond an interaction that holds atoms or ions together.
valeence electron an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties.
Created by: ashaver