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Anatomy - Part 1

The Cell and the Cellular Environment

A ____ is the basic structural unit of all plants and animals. A membrane enclosing a thick fluid and nucleus. cell
____ are specialized to carry out all of the body's basic functions. Cells
The three main elements of the cell are the ____ ____, ____, and ____. cell membrane, cytoplasm, organelles
The ____ ____ is the outer covering of a cell. cell membrane
The cell membrane is also called the ____ ____. plasma membrane
____ means able to allow some, but not all, substances to pass through. Semipermeable
____ ____ are semipermeable. Cell membranes
____ is the thick fluid that fills a cell. Cytoplasm
____ is also called protoplasm. Cytoplasm
The ____ are the structures that perform specific functions within a cell. organelles
The ____ is the organelle within a cell that contains the DNA, or genetic material. nucleus
In the cells of higher organisms, the nucleus is surrounded by a ____. membrane
____ ____ or ____ is a high energy compound present in all cells, especially muscle cells, which, when split by enzyme action, yields energy. Adenosine triphosphate, ATP
____ is stored in ATP. Energy
Structural Hierarchy of the Body: ____ --> ____ --> ____ --> ____ ____ --> ____ Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ systems, Organism
A ____ is a group of cells that perform a similar function. tissue
The ____ ____ is the protective tissue that lines internal and external body tissues. epithelial tissue
Skin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the intestinal tract are examples of ____ ____. epithelial tissue
The ____ ____ is the tissue that is capable of contractions when stimulated. muscle tissue
There are three types of muscle tissue; ____, ____, and ____. cardiac, smooth, skeletal
The myocardium, or heart muscle is an example of ____ ____ ____. cardiac muscle tissue
Muscle tissue within the intestines and surrounding blood vessels are and example of ____ ____ ____. smooth muscle tissue
Also known as striated, muscle tissue that allows skeletal movement is an example of ____ ____ ____. skeletal muscle tissue
____ ____ is mostly under voluntary, or conscious control. Skeletal muscle
____ ____ is under involuntary, or unconscious control. Smooth muscle
____ ____ is capable of spontaneous, or self-excited, contraction. Cardiac muscle
The ____ ____ is the most abundant body tissue. connective tissue
____ ____ provides support, connection, and insulation. Connective tissue
Bone, cartilage, fat, and blood are examples of ____ ____. connective tissue
The ____ ____ is the tissue that transmits electrical impulses throughout the body. nerve tissue
An ____ is a group of tissues functioning together. organ
The heart, liver, brain, ovary, and eye re examples of an ____. organ
An ____ ____ is a group of organs that work together. organ system
The gastrointestinal system, comprising the mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, rectum, and anus is an example of an ____ ____. organ system
An ____ is the sum of all the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living being. organism
The human and bacteria are examples of an ____. organism
The ____ of ay component of an organism - from the cellular level to the organ system level - can result in a serious ____ ____. medical emergency
____ is the natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady and normal internal environment. Homeostasis
____ is the structure of an organism. anatomy
____ is the functions of an organism, the physical and chemical processes of a living thing. Physiology
____ is the total changes that take place during physiological processes. Metabolism
When something interferes with the ___ ____ cells send to each other, a disease process can begin or advance. electrochemical messages
When normal ____ is disturbed the body attempts to restore normal ____, (i.e., homeostasis) metabolism, metabolism
Effects of Disease: ____ (at the site of the illness or injury) or ____ (throughout the body) Local, Systemic
The ____ ____ ____ is the body mechanisms that work to reverse, or compensate for, a pathophysiological process (or to reverse and physiological process, whether pathological or nonpathological). negative feedback loop
Control Systems: ____ system and ____ system Nervous, Endocrine
Some ____ and ____ derangements can result in death. fluid, electrolyte
The ____ ____ ____ or ____ is the total amount of water in the body at a given time. total body water, TBW
The ____ ____ or ____ is the fluid inside the body cells. intracellular fluid, ICF
The ____ ____ or ____ is the fluid outside the body cells. extracellular fluid, ECF
____ ____ is comprised of intracellular fluid and interstitial fluid. Extracellular fluid
The ____ ____ is the fluid within the circulatory system. intravascular fluid
Blood plasma is an example of ____ ____. intravascular fluid
Approximately ____% of all body fluid is located within the intracellular compartment. 75
Water amounts for ____% of the total body weight. 60
The ____ ____ contains the remaining 25% of all body water. extracellular compartment
The ____ ____ is the fluid in body tissues that is outside the cells and outside the vascular system interstitial fluid
A ____ is a substance that dissolves other substances, forming a solution. solvent
____ is the universal solvent. Water
____ is crucial to virtually all of the body's biochemical processes. Water
____ is the excessive loss of body fluid. Dehydration
Gastrointestinal losses, increased insensible loss, increased sweating, internal losses, and plasma losses are examples of what can cause ____. dehydration
Dehydration usually involves loss of both ____ and ____. water, electrolytes
____ is the normal tension in a cell or the resistance of the skin to deformation. Turgor
In a normally hydrated person, the skin, when pinched, will ____ return to its normal formation. quickly
In a dehydrated person, the skin, when pinched, will be ____ to return to normal formation. slower
____ is the presence of retention of an abnormally high amount of body fluid. Overhydration
An ____ is a substance that, in water, separates into electrically charged particles. electrolyte
____ is to separate or break down. Dissociate
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), when placed in water, ____ into a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO-3). dissociates
An ____ is a charged particle; an atom or group of atoms whose electrical charge has changed from neutral to positive or negative by losing or gaining one or more electrons. in
In an atom's normal, ____ state, its positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons balance each other so that the atom's charge is ____. nonionized, neutral
A ____ is an ion with a positive charge - so called because it will be attracted to a cathode, or negative pole. cation
An ____ is an ion with a negative charge - so called because it will be attracted to an anode, or positive pole. anion
____ (____) is the most prevalent cation in the extracellular fluid. Sodium, Na+
____ plays a major role in regulating the distribution of water because water is attracted to and moves with it. Sodium
____ (____) is the most prevalent cation in the intracellular fluid. Potassium, K+
____ is important in the transmission of electrical impulses. Potassium
____ (____) plays a major role in muscle contraction as well as nervous impulse transmission. Calcium, Ca++
____ (____) is necessary for several biochemical processes that occur in the body and is closely associated with phosphate in many processes. Magnesium, Mg++
A ____ is a substance that tends to preserve or restore a normal acid-base balance by increasing or decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions. buffer
____ (____) is an important anion because its negative charge balances the positive charge associated with cations. Chloride, Cl-
____ plays a major role in fluid balance and renal function. It has a close association with sodium. Chloride
____ (____) is the principal buffer of the body which mean that it neutralizes the highly acidic hydrogen ion (H+) and other organic acids. Bicarbonate, HCO-3
____ (____) is important in body energy stores and is closely associated with magnesium in renal function. Phosphate, HPO-4
____ acts as a buffer, primarily in the intracellular space, in much the same manner as bicarbonate. Phosphate
____ is equal in concentration of solute molecules; solutions may be this to each other. Isotonic
____ means having a greater concentration of solute molecules; one solution may be this to another. Hypertonic
____ means having a lesser concentration of solute molecules; one solution may be this to another. Hypotonic
The ____ ____ is the difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane. osmotic gradient
____ is the movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. Diffusion
____ is the movement of water from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lesser water concentration. Osmosis
Because water is a solvent, it moves from an area of ____ solute concentration to an area of ____ solute concentration. lower, higher
____ is the passage of a solvent such as water through a membrane. Osmosis
____ ____ is the movement of a substance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient; that is, from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration, opposite to the normal direction of diffusion. Active transport
____ ____ is the diffusion of a substance such as a glucose through a call membrane that requires the assistance of a 'helper', or carrier protein. Facilitated diffusion
____ ____ is also known as carrier mediated diffusion. Facilitated diffusion
____ ___ is faster than diffusion, but it requires the expenditure of energy, which diffusion does not. Active transport
____ is the concentration of solute per kilogram of water. Osmolality
____ is the concentration of solute per liter of water. Osmolarity
The ____ ____ is the pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane that, if hypertonic, tends to 'pull' water (cause osmosis) from the other side of the membrane. osmotic pressure
The ____ ____ is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by the large protein particles, or colloids, present in blood plasma. oncotic force
In the capillaries, the ____ colloids tend to pull water from the interstitial space across the capillary membrane into the capillary with oncotic force. plasma
____ ____ is the blood pressure or force against vessel walls created by the heartbeat. Hydrostatic pressure
____ ____ tends to force water out of the capillaries into the interstitial space. Hydrostatic pressure
____ is the movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space. Filtration
____ ____ is the total loss of water from blood plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space. Net filtration
Normally, hydrostatic pressure forcing water out of the capillary I balanced by an oncotic force pulling water into the capillary for a net filtration of ____. zero
____ is the abbreviation for potential of hydrogen which is a measure of acidity or alkalinity. pH
Since the pH scale is ____ to the concentration of acidic hydrogen ions, the lower the pH the greater the ____ and the higher the pH the greater the ____. inverse, acidity alkalinity
A normal pH range is ____ to ____. 7.35, 7.45
____-____ ____ is a dynamic relationship that reflects the relative concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the body. Acid-base balance
____ is a high concentration of hydrogen ions; a pH below ____. Acidosis, 7.35
____ is a low concentration of hydrogen ions; a pH above ____. Alkalosis, 7.45
The two components of the bicarbonate buffer system are ____ ____ (____) and ____ ____ (____). bicarbonate ion (HCO-3), carbonic acid (H2CO3)
In some circumstances, ____ ____ will combine with bicarbonate ion to produce carbonic acid which makes it in equilibrium with the two compounds. hydrogen ion
Created by: whit_1348